61 terms

Landmark Supreme Court Cases

Include: year, background of case, ruling and impact of ruling
Schenck v. United States
There are limits on free speech if it posed a "clear and present danger" to the - You cannot yell "Fire" in a crowded room if it is not true
Tinker v. Des Moines
Schools cannot ban symbolic speech; Students have the right to symbolic speech at school as long as it is not disruptive
The Skokie Case
A group cannot be denied their Constitutional rights based on their beliefs; KKK wanted to hold a parade - freedom of expression
Bethel School District v. Fraser
Schools can make rules to regulate speech, was a United States Supreme Court decision involving free speech and public schools. Matthew Fraser was suspended from school for making a speech full of sexual double entendres at a school assembly. The Supreme Court held that his suspension did not violate the First Amendment as schools can limit lewd, obscene language
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier
School principals can censor student publications, constrains student rights, newspaper is part of curriculum and can be regulated by school, school can provide reasonable protection for students and community
Texas v. Johnson
Legal to burn the flag in protest; Freedom of Speech
Engel v. Vitale
School sponsored prayer is illegal in public schools; separation of church and state
Abington v. Schempp
Daily scripture reading for religious purposes is illegal in public schools; separation of church and state
Mapp v. Ohio
The 1961 Supreme Court decision ruling that the Fourth Amendment's protection against unreasonable searches and seizures must be extended to the states as well as to the federal government.Exclusionary Rule; evidence obtained illegally cannot be used in a court of law
Roe v. Wade
Abortions legal in all 50 states; choice & Right to privacy
TLO v. New Jersey
School officials can search students based on "reasonable suspicion" "Probable cause" is not necessary, This 1985 case started when school administrators found a girl smoking in the school restroom. They searched her bag and found evidence of her dealing marijuana.
The ruling in the Supreme Court was that the school was right and they had a reasonable cause to search her bag. The girl was also punished by the juvenile court.
Right to privacy vs
In Loco Parentis - individual who assumes parental status and responsibilities for another individual... school officials are responsible for the safety of their students
Gideon v. Wainwright
Criminal defendants are entitled to a court appointed attorney regardless of the type of crime; rights of the accused
Escobedo v. Illinois
Criminals are entitled to have their attorney present during questioning; rights of the accused
Miranda v. Arizona
Police must read suspects their rights if they are under arrest and being questioned about a crime; rights of the accused ... (now if arrested the police will inform you of your "Miranda rights"
In RE Gault
Established rules for arresting, questioning, convicting and sentencing juveniles
Furman v. Georgia
Death penalty not unconstitutional, but procedures applied by states were biased against African Americans and the poor; the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty, as administered, constituted cruel and unusual punishment in which case... states that retain death penalty had to rewrite procedures
Gregg v. Georgia
Cruel and unusual punishment concerned torture, made capital punishment constitutional; overturned Furman v. Georgia (1972) which stated that capital punishment was unconstitutional
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Stated people of African descent (Slaves and freemen) were not citizens and not entitled to sue in court
Congress cannot forbid slavery in a territory, (Missouri Compromise Unconstitutional) Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process
Ruling led to the 14th amendment
Plessy v. Ferguson
Segregation ruled Constitutional as long as accommodations were equal- Separate But Equal Ruling; narrow interpretation of the 14th amendment
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
Reversed Plessy decision- Segregation ruled unconstitutional
Korematsu v. United States
Actions such as internment camps are permitted during a time of "military urgency"/purposes of national security
Heart of Atlanta Hotel v. United States
Facilities that serve interstate customers must follow federal laws based on the commerce clause of Constitution (Congress can regulate interstate trade)
Places of "public accommodation" like a hotel may not discriminate, per the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Reynolds v. Sims
State legislature districts have to be roughly equal in population
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
Busing is an acceptable tool for integration
California v. Bakke
Giving preferential treatment to members of any one group based on race or ethnic origin is discrimination
Shaw v. Reno
Racial gerrymandering is illegal
Marbury v. Madison
1. Established the Supreme Court has the power to determine if laws passed by Congress are Constitutional (JUDICIAL REVIEW) 2. Established the Constitution is the Supreme law of the land
United States v. Nixon
Presidents can only use executive privilege to protect national security, not to cover up a crime
McCulloch v. Maryland
Federal institutions cannot be taxed by states. Supported Congress' implied powers
Gibbons v. Ogden
Defined Commerce to include navigation and determined Congress has the right to regulate navigation- Commerce Clause of the Constitution gives Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce- Constitution is the Supreme Law of the Land
State v. Mann
Slaves were the absolute property of their owners- Owners could not be convicted for killing a slave even if the death came from a beating
Leandro v. The State of North Carolina
The State is required to educate all students equally regardless of socioeconomic status or location
Bayard v. Singleton
First state court decision to declare a state law unconstitutional- Judicial Review
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
States are not allowed to take over private institutions and make them public- strengthened the Contract Clause
Buckley v. Valeo
The government can set limits on campaign contributions to limit corruption in elections
West Virginia v. Barnette
Schools cannot require students to salute the flag
Wallace v. Jaffree
Daily moments of silence are illegal because they are considered "an establishment of religion"
Worcester v. Georgia
The national government of the United States—and not individual states—had authority in Native American affairs
Fletcher v Peck
Gibbons v Ogden
Johnson v McIntosh
Cherokee Nation v Georgia
Charles River Bridge v Warren Bridge
Dispute over the toll bridge of Charles River and the free bridge of Warren. The court ruled in favor of Warren. Reversed Dartmouth College v. Woodward; property rights can be overridden by public need
Commonwealth v Hunt
Ex parte Milligan
Civil Rights Cases 1883
Wabash, St.Louis & Pacific Railway v Illinois
Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul RR v Minnesota
Pollack v The Farmers Loan and Trust Co.
US v EC Knight Co
Insular Cases/ Downes v Bidwell
Northern Securities Co. v US
Lochner v NY
Hammer v Dagenhart
Adkins v Children's Hospital
Schechter v US
Ex parto Endo
re: Debs
Clinton v Jones
Boy Scouts fo America v Dale
Bush v Gore