Biology Unit 2: Energy Exchange and Respiratory Surfaces
Terms in this set (35)
What processes are involved in energy exchange?
digestion, respiration and circulation are all involved in energy exchange
How does exchange occur?
Exchange occurs as substances dissolved in an aqueous solution move across the plasma membrane into a cell
How does exchange work in single celled organisms?
It is easier in single celled organisms because the whole body surface of the organism is in contact with the environment
How does exchange work in multicellular organisms?
In multicellular organisms, exchange must occur over every cell, which means that every cell must have access to an aqueous environment
What are the characteristics of gas exchange tissues?
Tissues used for gas exchange are usually very thin with few cell layers, moist, and contain a high surface area
What do complex animals have that other animals do not have in regards to gas exchange?
Complex animals have specialized exchange surfaces used for gas exchange because they have so many cells that need to exchange gases
What are the characteristics of a specialized respiratory organ?
-They can be either internal (lungs) or external (gills)
-They have a large surface area with many folds and/or branches
-They are connected to the circulatory system
-They have a thin surface for exchange, such as a layer of epithelial cells
-The surface is moistened, usually surrounded by interstitial fluid
What are the characteristics of big animals that require specialized organs for respiration?
Large animals have a small body surface relative to their volume, so they need specialized surfaces because they cannot diffuse gases throughout the vast amount of tissues that make up their bodies
What are characteristics of water that make it difficult for gas exchange compared to air?
-water has a smaller O2 concentration than air
-O2 diffuses more slowly in water than in air
-water is more dense and viscous than air, making gas exchange more difficult
How do gills work in order to filter the O2 out of water?
-Gills have a huge surface area that comes into direct contact with water
-They also contain a ventilation system
-The flow of water only goes one way, through the mouth and then filtered through the gills. The water going into the mouth has a high O2 content, the water flowing out of the gills has a low O2 content
-Gills use countercurrent exchange
What is countercurrent exchange
-Countercurrent exchange is when the direction of the flow of water is opposite of the flow of blood/respiratory fluid
-This is the most effective method as it obtains the most O2
Inversely, what is concurrent exchange?
-Concurrent exchange is when the direction of the flow of water and the flow of blood/respiratory fluid flow in the same direction
-This method of exchange causes around 50% of O2 to be wasted
What is a tracheal system?
-The tracheal system is an extensive branched system of internal tubules
-It is adapted for gas exchange in terrestrial environments
What is a spiracle?
A spiracle is a hole in the side of the animal that attaches to a trachea, which branches into tracheoles
What is a trachea?
The trachea is the main tubule in the tracheal system
What is a tracheole?
Tracheoles are smaller branched tubules coming off of the trachea
How does gas exchange work in the tracheal system?
In the tracheal system, O2 is close enough to every cell so that it diffuses into every cell. No direct contact with blood vessels is needed
What does the respiratory system in mammals look like?
Mammals have a trachea that branches into two bronchi, which branches into bronchioles which branch into millions of alveoli
What are lungs?
Lungs are considered infoldings of the throat
-Alveoli have a huge surface area
-They are very thin
-They come into direct contact with capillaries
-They are moistened by surfactant, a film of liquid
How do alveoli work with deoxygenated blood? (CO2)
-First, deoxygenated blood comes from the systemic capillaries into the vena cava
-The blood enters the right atrium and right ventricle and is pumped into the pulmonary artery
-the blood is then pumped into the pulmonary capillaries
-The capillaries pass the alveoli where O2 is diffused into the blood stream
How do alveoli work with oxygenated blood? (O2)
-first, oxygen moves into the lungs and goes into the alveoli
-the alveoli transfer the oxygen to the pulmonary capillaries via diffusion
-the capillaries lead to the pulmonary vein to the left atrium and the left ventricle
-the blood is then pumped through the aorta and into the systemic capillaries
What are three possible ways that CO2 can be transported back to the alveoli and which is the most common?
CO2 can be transported in a dissolved form in plasma (small amount), attached to hemoglobin (medium amount) and dissolved as bicarbonate (CO3) in the blood (large amount)
What type of fluid bathes active muscle cells?
What area of the gas exchange surface has a high level of Potential Oxygen (PO2)
The blood stream
What are of the gas exchange surface has a high level of Potential Carbon Dioxide (PCO2)
the active muscle cell
What are of the gas exchange surface has a high level of Potential Bicarbonate (PCO3)
The blood stream
What is tidal volume?
Tidal volume refers to the normal amount of air taken in by the lungs in a normal breath
What is residual volume?
Residual volume refers to the amount of air in the lungs after a person has exhaled as much as he or she possibly can
What does the respiratory system of birds look like?
-The respiratory system of birds includes parabronchi, or air tubes, with a lot of surface area
-The parabronchi causes one way air flow of respiration medium through lungs
-it also uses crosscurrent exchange
What is crosscurrent exchange?
Crosscurrent exchange refers to when gas exchange occurs across the entire respiratory surface, utilizing the whole surface
What is the ranking of respiratory system designs from best to worst (in terms of how much O2 is derived)?
1. Countercurrent (Fish)
2. Crosscurrent (Birds)
3. Tidal (Mammals)
4. Tracheal (Arthropods)
How does homeostatic control of breathing work during rest?
When the respiratory system is at rest, the medullary response center stimulates the ribs (intercostal muscles) and diaphragm to contract (12-14 times per minute)
How does homeostatic control of breathing work during exercise?
When exercising, cellular respiration occurs in muscle cells . The potential oxygen (PO2) in the blood DECREASES, and the potential carbon dioxide (PCO2) in the blood INCREASES
How does the homeostatic control of oxygen carrying capacity work?
Low blood oxygen levels causes the hormone erythropoietin to be released by the kidneys, which travels to the bone marrow to tell the marrow to increase production of red blood cells
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