Final Exam

Peer Pressure
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Birth Control MethodsThe pill Patch or vaginal ring Plan B Hormonal implants IUD Spermicides Condoms Birth control spongeErikson's Psychosocial Theorystage theory of psychosocial development, lifespan consists of eight dilemmas that must be solved correctly in order to solve the next dilemmaErikson Stage 1trust vs mistrust; 0-18 months; learning to trust others is overriding a crisis; parents who provide warm, loving care, learn to trust that those things will be provides to themErikson Stage 2autonomy vs shame and doubt; 18 months to 3 years; Children strive to accomplish things independently, learning to feed themselves, using the toilet, etc. These provide children with feelings of self worth and confidence; if a child is restricted or or punished, shame and doubt will emerge insteadErikson Stage 3Initiate versus guilt; preschoolers aged 3 to 6 must face crisis of taking their own initiative; children at this age are extremely active physically and they want to explore the world around them; Preschoolers who are encouraged to take initiative & to explore are likely to assimilate and use this concept later in life Those who are treated harshly will default to guilt. They will become passive and feel guilty about their desires to do things.Erikson Stage 4industry vs inferiority; 6 to 12; children in the age group need to be productive and succeed in their activities; academic achievements become more important as well as comparison to peersErikson Stage 5identity vs role confusion; A time when teenagers explore who they are and establish identity; transition from childhood to adulthood; Some people cannot integrate into their expected roles and suffer role confusion; confusion about identityErikson Stage 6intimacy vs isolation; young adulthood; driven by quest for intimacy with others; people who do not attain intimacy are likely to suffer isolation; these people who isolate often did not have resolve in other stagesErikson Stage 7generativity vs stagnation; middle adulthood; concerns a drive to be creative and productive in a way that will aid people in the future; adults who lack generatively become self-absorbedErikson Stage 8integrity vs despair; old age; at this stage people tend to look back on their lives and reflect on them; if they are content with their life and accomplishments they have ego integrity; if they look back with regret and despair they are said to experience despairLevel 1: Preconventional or Premolar Level- Defined by giving precedence to self-interest - Level experience from ages 4-10 - Moral standards based on external standards such as rewards & punishments - First stage is on avoiding punishments - Second stage is on rewards - Doing the right thing for a rewardLevel 2: The Conventional Level- Moral thought is based on conforming to conventional roles - ages 10 to 13 - Strong desire to please others through social approvalLevel 3: Post-conventional Level- developing a moral conscience that goes beyond what others say - contemplating laws based on what their own view of what is right and wrong - Behavior is based on principles rather than laws - Stage 5 involves adhering to laws - Stage 6 involves ultimate attainment, free of the thoughts and opinions of others. Morality is completely internalized - MLK and GhandiHow where Kohlberg's ideas transformed by Gilligan's?- Men operate on a justice perspective & women on care perspective - His theories only written based on men - Women tend to focus on the wellbeing of others and emphasize interpersonal relationshipsGilligan's Stages of MoralityLevel 1: Orientation to personal survival. Focus is first on personal level then transition from person selfishness to responsibility, some others are considered. Level 2: Goodness as self sacrifice. Putting aside one's own needs and wishes, a woman at this level feels dependent on what others think. Transition from goodness to reality. Level 3: The morality of nonviolent responsibility. Thinking has progressed past beyond just what others thinking combined with what is good for everyone including her.Fowler Stage 1: Primal or Undifferentiated Faith- Birth to 2 years - All people develop their views of faith and the world from scratch - Infants learn early on if their environment is safeFowler Stage 2: Intuitive-Projective Faith- Ages 2 to 6 - What children are exposed to in terms of spiritual language is what they conceptualize about their faith - Children at this age are egocentric, so faith and religion will lack in-depth conceptualization and application to life experienceFowler Stage 3: Mythic-Literal Faith- Ages 6 to 12 - Starts to develop conceptual thought - Stories are especially important when developing thoughts about life and relationships - Children will start to think more seriously about aspects related to faith - Concept of a God as a cosmic rulerFowler Stage 4: Synthetic-Conventional- Ages 12 and Older - Individuals develop their ability to conceptualize and apply information in new ways - Exposed to much more in the world - Starting to think more abstractly and view the world in new perspectives - Still have not critically evaluated their faith, rather they still adhere to conventional ideologyFowler Stage 5: Individuate-Reflective Faith- Early Adulthood and beyond - Critical thinking about the meaning of life begins - Focus of faith moves away from the group and more towards what it means for the self - Confront conflicts in values and ideas - For example, a woman's church may not believe in gay marriage, does she support this or not? She will start to construct a more detailed internal spiritual belief systemFowler Stage 6: Conjunctive Faith- Midlife and beyond - Only 1/6 got here and never before age 30 - Individuals have already confronted their own views and accepted that conflict exists - Being able to accept the validity of someone else's truth or religion without feeling defensive and staying grounded in one's own belief systemFowler Stage 7: Universalizing Faith- midlife and beyond - Selfless commitment to justice on behalf of others - Spiritual self is still the reference point, but a deep spiritual concern for the greater good above oneself if presentAssertivenessBeing able to take into consideration both their own value system and the values of whoever is receiving the message. They consider their points to be important yet will also consider the reactions of the receiver and value their perspectiveAgressiveCommunication involves bold and dominant verbal and nonverbal behaviors in which a speaker presses his or her points of view as taking precedence over all others. (Ex. Donald Trump's debate style)nonassertiveOpposite of aggressive. Speakers devalue themselves. They feel that what the other person involved thinks is much more important and their own thoughts.Gordons "I Messaging"- non-blaming messages that communicate only how the sender of the message believes the receiver is adversely affecting the sender - "I-Messages" reflect how the behavior of the teenager makes the parent feel, it does not point fingers, suggest solutions, or puts down the teenager - Note: This only works if the teenager cares about how their actions affect the parentGordon's Problem Solving- "No lose" approach where each persons conflict is treated with respect and a creative solution is sought out - Avoids a power struggle and encourages compromise between both the teen and the parentRees empowerment of youthFour Stages 1. Powerlessness - teens have to be able to express their despair, hurt, and disappointment before social workers can offer solutions 2. Awareness and mutual education. Youth should be able to talk about their experiences good and bad. Allow them to construct their stories 3. Dialogue and solidarity. Exchange information with each other such as knowledge or rights to education. Begin to formulate plans for empowering themselves 4. Action and political Identity. Creating a sense of self and beliefs to better create ones overall quality of life.Anorexia- Excessive pursuit of thinness through voluntary starvation and excessive exercise - Usually, begins with a diet & intense exercise and spirals from thereBulimia- Binge eating is usually caused by emotional upset rather than hunger - Usually, the person will eat a ton of food in one sitting and will "get rid of the calories" by inducing vomiting or by using laxativesBinge Eating Disorder- significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosaGang Formation: Theory of Differential AssociationAsserts that criminal behavior is a result of a learning process that stems primarily from from small peer groups, families or neighborhoodsGang Formation: Anomie TheoryDelinquent behavior results when an individual or a gang is prevented from achieve high-status goals in societyGang Formation: Deviant Subcultures TheorySome groups have developed their own attitudes, values, and perspectives that support criminal activityGang Formation: Control TheoriesAssume that all people would naturally commit crimes and therefore must be constrained by society from breaking the lawRecreation GroupsGroups that provide activities for enjoyment and exerciseSkill GroupsImprove a set of skills while providing enjoymentEducational GroupsHelp members acquire knowledge and learn more complex skills. Leader is generally a professional.Task GroupsFormed to achieve a certain set of tasks or group objectives. Ex. Board of directors or a committeeFocus GroupsA strategy to obtain data from a small group of people using interview questionsSelf-Help groupsa group composed of people who have similar problems and who meet together without a therapist or counselor for the purpose of discussion, problem solving, and social and emotional supportCommunication Styles (Men & Women)- Men tend to interrupt in mixed conversations more than women do - Women tend to pick up on non-verbal cues better than menSexual Harassmentunwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual natureMyths About Rape- most rapes occur in dark alleys (survivors most likely already knew their rapist) - Blaming the victim "what were you wearing? or were you drinking?" - Strangers are the only potential rapist (more likely to be raped by intimate partner or family member)Interventions for Rape Survivors- Provide survivor with immediate warmth and support, eliciting support from others (ex rape crisis center or support groups), rebuilding survivors trust in herself, enviornment and in her personal relationships.