Cognitive process Chapter 5
Terms in this set (49)
the set of representations and processes by which information is encode, consolidated, and retrieved.
-information that is acquired in the course of an experience and that persists so that it can be retrieved even long after the experience is past.
Declarative memory (explicit memory)-
form of long-term memory that can be consciously recollected and described ("declared") to other people; includes memory for facts and events.
memory of individual events that is associated with a particular spatial and temporal context. The memory of events in our own personal past.
general knowledge about the world, including words and concepts, their properties and interrelations.
Explicit memory tests-
memory tasks that make direct (that is, explicit) reference to memory for the past, such as recall and recognition
Nondeclarative memory (implicit memory)-
nonconscious forms of long-term memory that are expressed as a change in behavior rather than as conscious recollection.
Implicit memory test-
memory tasks that make indirect (that is, implicit) reference to memory; the memory is revealed implicitly through a change in behavior rather than through recall or recognition of the contents of memory
-the inability consciously to remember information encountered after damage to the medial temporal lobes.
the forgetting of events that occurred before brain damage
the ability to trace (ex. A star) while looking only at the reflection of his hand and the star in a mirror.
the act of processing a stimulus by considering its meaning and relating it to other information stored in memory. Interpreting information, connecting it with other information and mulling it over
theory based on the hypothesis that processing different aspects of a stimulus-perceptual, phonological, semantic-corresponds to increasingly deeper processing and increasingly more effective encoding.
Incidental learning-learning that occurs not as a result of a purposeful attempt to learn, but as a byproduct of performing a particular task.
Encoding specificity principle-Our ability to remember a stimulus depends on the similarity between the way the stimulus is processed at encoding and at retrieval. EX if the word band is interpreted as meaning "the side of a river" rather than "a financial institution" at encoding, then remembering will be superior if at retrieval bank is interpreted as "the side of a river."
Transfer appropriate processing-
the principle that processing at encoding is effective to the extent that it overlaps with the processing to be performed at retrieval.
Encoding specificity principle-
Our ability to remember a stimulus depends on the similarity between the way the stimulus is processed at encoding and at retrieval. EX if the word band is interpreted as meaning "the side of a river" rather than "a financial institution" at encoding, then remembering will be superior if at retrieval bank is interpreted as "the side of a river."
learning that occurs as the result of a purposeful attempt.
the phenomenon that information that is retrieved or generated from memory is more likely to be remembered than information that is presented externally
repeatedly studying the same information without interleaving other information between study trials. (less effective)
study trials separated by other stimuli. (more effective ex: change of flashcards).
the phenomenon that memory for information is better when study trials are spaced rather than massed.
Convergence zone (association area)-
a population of conjunctive neurons that associated features information. (medial temporal-hippocampus)
the process that modifies memory representations such that they become more stable over time.
a retrieval process in which a cue that is part of a stored memory serves to reactivate other aspects of the stored memory, resulting in retrieval of other information present during encoding of the event.
the reinstatement during retrieval of the pattern of activation that was present during encoding.
-frontal patients have difficulty remembering from whom they learned a new fact even when they can remember the fact itself, thus revealing a specific deficit in recollecting context.
-Relying on hints and clues from the external and internal environment.
the phenomenon that memory retrieval is typically better when the external or physical environment-the context-at retrieval matches that at encoding.
the phenomenon that retrieval is typically better when aspects of our internal states at retrieval match those at encoding.
Dual-process theories (of recognition)-
theories based on the hypothesis that recollection and familiarity can both support recognition that a stimulus was previously encountered.
bias resulting when background knowledge about the world and personal beliefs influence memory to reshape it in a form consistent with expectations.
bias resulting from the (often erroneous) belief that one's attitudes are stable overtime; memories are therefore unconsciously adjusted to bring the past in line with the present.
memory that is a reconstruction of the past rather than a reproduction of it (and is thus is susceptible to bias).
ascribing recollected information to an incorrect time, place, person, or source.
is the inability to recall or recognize previously encoded information
-the time between encoding and retrieval of an event.
the hypothesis that forgetting is caused by the spontaneous weakening of memory representations with time.
Interference theories (of forgetting)-
theories based on the hypothesis that memories compete during retrieval, and forgetting occurs because other associates of a cue interfere with retrieval of the desired memory.
the case in which new learning impairs the ability to remember previously learned information.
the case in which previous learning results in difficulty remembering newly learned information.
Blocking (of Memory)
-obstruction preventing retrieval of target information when other information is more strongly associated with the retrieval cue.
interference, leading to forgetting, during the act of retrieval because initially retrieved memories are strengthened and thus block retrieval of other memories.
forgetting that occurs when a memory is suppressed during the retrieval of another memory.
the active weakening of a memory.
facilitated processing of perceptual aspects of a stimulus due to processing a prior stimulus (priming is a form of nondeclarative memory).
facilitated processing of the meaning of a stimulus, due to processing a related stimulus (priming is a form of nondecalarative memory)
-the phenomenon observed in nonhuman primates and rats that the firing rate of neurons is less in subsequent encounters with a stimulus than in the initial encounter.
-habits that emerge through the slow accumulation of knowledge about the predictive relationship between a stimulus and a response.
the process wherein a response that is elicited by an initial stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus) prior to learning comes to be elicited by a second stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) that predicts the onset of the unconditioned stimulus. (Pavlov with dog)
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