CDC epidemiology chapter 1
Terms in this set (58)
the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems.
refers to the number of health events with respect to the size of the populations.
occurrence of health-related events by time, place, and person. time patters include annual, seasonal, weekly, daily, or hourly trends. place patterns include geographic variance, and urban versus rural.
cause and risk factors of health related events.
applying knowledge gained by studies. combines scientific knowledge, experience and clinical judgement.
First thoughts on epidemiology
suggested that environmental factors and behavior might influence disease development.
more early thoughts on epidemiology
started keeping track of birth and death patters in 1662.
Father of field epidemiology. Solved problem in London with the cholera epidemic based on water sources.
public health surveillance cycle
public and health care providers REPORTING and the health department giving FEEDBACK.
six major tasks of epidemiology in public health practice.
Public Health Surveillance
public health workers go out into the public and try and find the cause of reported health problems.
hallmark of analytic studies include the use of a comparison group.
Design(research design), Conduct(appropriate clearances and approvals), Analysis(read tables okay), Interpretation(make recommendations based on data).
Effectiveness versus efficacy
effectiveness= ability to get expected results
efficacy= produce results under ideal conditions
ability to produce intended results with minimum allotted time and resources.
cases or health events, and describes them in terms of time, place, and person.
the number of cases by an appropriate denominator to calculate rates.
rates over time or for different groups of people.
a set of standard criteria for classifying whether a person has a particular disease, syndrome, or other health condition.
the number of cases/(the size of the population per unit of time)
the five W's of descriptive epidemiology.
disease occurrence with a pattern that can be graphed. like west nile occurring in the summer.
what is the most "person" attribute?
what are the common "person" attributes?
age, race, sex, socioeconomic status.
what is the KEY feature of analytic epidemiology?
a comparison group
epidemiology studies fall into what two categories?
experimental and observational.
the investigator determines the exposure for each individual and then tracks individuals or communities over time to detect effectiveness.
simply observe disease status of individuals. like how john snow figured out the cholera epidemic in London.
similar to experimental study, but the epidemiologist record whether or not the participant is exposed and then tracks to look for disease development. The investigator observes the participants exposure rather than controlling it.
retrospective cohort studies.
cohort studies observed from the past.
investigators enroll group with disease ,and control group without the disease.
just a random sample of people are picked and their health exposure and disease contractions are measured.
a virus, bacterium, or parasite present in order for disease to occur.
the human who can get the disease.
factor that affect the ability for exposure.
climate, sanitation, crowding, and insects.
one of the individual causes of a disease
aka. the causal pathway.
all the components that could a disease
the absolutely necessary components for a disease.
time of exposure of disease to onset of symptoms(infectious diseases)
time of exposure of disease to onset of symptoms( chronic diseases)
spectrum of disease
illness ranges from mild to severe.
proportion of people who become infected
proportion of infected individuals who develop a clinically apparent disease.
proportion of the clinically apparent cases that are severe or fatal.
people who are infectious but have sub clinical diseases.
chain of infection
portal of exit
mode of transmission
portal of entry
habitat in which an infectious agent typically lives and grows. humans, animals, or the environment.
infectious diseases that can spread from vertebrates animals to humans.
portal of exit
way through which the pathogen leaves the host.
modes of transmission
direct(direct contact/ droplet spread)
indirect(airborne, vehicleborne, vectorborne)
portal of entry
manner in which a pathogen enters a susceptible host.
amount of disease usually found in a community at any given time.
disease that occur irregularly or infrequently
persistent high levels of disease occurrence in a community.
sudden increase in cases of a disease not expected for a population.
similar to epidemic but for a more limited geographic area.
epidemic that is quickly far spread affecting a lot of people.
results from transmission from one person to another through direct contact.( syphilis)