Human Diseases: Caused by Bacterial Infection

Legionnaires' Disease (Legionellosis)
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Terms in this set (30)
- Reproduction in alveolar macrophages causes localized tissue destruction.
- Symptoms: fever, cough, headache, neuralgia, bronchopneumonia, and diarrhea.
- Treatment/Prevention: isolation of bacteria and immunodiagnostics, antibiotics, eliminate nosocomial spread, identification or elimination of environmental source.
Image: Legionnaires' Disease (Legionellosis)
- Inflammation of the brain or spinal cord meninges.
- Major bacterial causes include Streptococcus pneumonia, Neisseria meningitides, and Haemophilus influenza (serotype b).
- Transmitted by respiratory droplets.
- Symptoms: initial respiratory illness or sore throat interrupted by vomiting, headache, lethargy, confusion or stiffness in the neck. May be fatal if left untreated.
- Treatment: antibiotics or vaccine
Image: Meningitis
- In soil, water, and dust.
- Infect a variety of insects, birds, and other animals.
- Symptoms: pulmonary infections (similar to TB) are usually observed in elderly patients with preexisting pulmonary disease and individuals with suppressed immune systems. Gastrointestinal infections which are common in HIV-positive patients; fever, malaise, weight loss, night sweats, and diarrhea.
- Treatment/Prevention: isolation from sputum, blood, or bone marrow. acid-fast stain and immunodiagnostic tests. multiple drug therapy.
- Some commonly infected groups are elderly, malnourished, alcoholic males, minorities, immigrants, prisoner populations, and Native Americans.
- Transmitted: the majority is person-to-person spread of droplet nuclei, from infected animals and their products, and reactivation of old, dormant infections.
Image: Tuberculosis (TB)
- Symptoms: fever, fatigue, night sweats, weight loss, and coughs (may contain bloody sputum)
- Diagnosis: observation of acid-fast bacteria, chest x-ray, mantous or skin test, DNA-based tests.
- Treatment: antibiotics for 6 to 8 weeks then two drugs for 6 months to decrease the development of that drug resistance. A multi-drug resistance strain (MDR-TB) OR (XDR-TB)
Prevention: rapid, specific therapy to interrupt spread, retreatment of patients with MDR-TB, improved sanitation and housing.
- Common infection called strep throat spread by droplets of saliva or nasal secretions.
- Infected in the throat (pharyngitis) or tonsils (tonsillitis).
- Observed: redness, edema and lymph node, enlargement in throat
- Symptoms: not diagnostic because many viral infections have similar presentations
- Diagnosis: rapid kits
- Treatment: antibiotics important for children to lessen chance of complications (rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis)
Image: Streptococcal pharyngitis
Group B Streptococcal Disease- Common cause of neonatal and newborne diseases such as sepsis, bacteremia, and pneumonia. - Causes sepsis, pneumonia, and skin and bone infections in pregnant women, the elderly, and immunocompromised adults. - Transmitted: directly from person to person with many people being transient carriers; vagina may be a source for newborns. - Diagnosis: gram-positive, B-hemolytic streptococcal bacteria growth from cultures of otherwise sterile body fluids. - Treatment/Prevention: antibiotics and detect pregnancy carriersH. pylori Disease- Transmission: probably person to person - Diagnosis: culture of gastric biopsy specimen, examination of stained biopsies, detection of antigen in stools and urea breath test - Treatment/Prevention: a combination of drugs to decrease stomach acid and antibiotics to kill the bacteriaChlamydial DiseasesSymptoms (Males): - asymptomatic or urethral discharge, burning in urination, and itching. Symptoms (Females): - sometimes asymptomatic - may have a severe infection of the cervix and urethra - may cause PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) - if pregnant, can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, inclusion conjunctivitis, and infant pneumonia Treatment: - antibioticsGonorrhea- The disease of the mucous membrane of the genitourinary tract, eye, rectum and throat. Symptoms (Males): - urethral discharge of yellow, creamy pus and painful, burning urination Symptoms (Females): - vaginal discharge beginning 7 to 21 days after the infection. - pelvic inflammatory disease results from infection of fallopian tubes and surrounding tissue: major cause of sterility and ectopic pregnancies. - Treatment: antibiotic eye drops or silver nitrate in newborns at birth.Syphilis- Caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. Pallidum - Diagnosis: clinical history, microscopic exam, and serology or veneral disease research laboratory and rapid plasmin reagen measure the production of antibody made in response to host cells damaged by T. pallidum. - Treatment/Prevention: antibiotic therapy, public education, prompt treatment of new cases, follow up and contacts, sexual hygiene, and use of condoms.Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS)- Caused by stains S. aureus that carry a plasmid borne gene for exfoliative toxin (exfoliatin) - epidermis skin peels off revealing red area underneath Diagnosis: isolation/identification of Staphylococcus involves commercial kits Treatment: catalase test, coagulase test, serology, DNA fingerprinting and phage typing/Antibiotic therapy/personal hygiene, food handling, aseptic management of lesions.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)S. aureus isolates that are resistant to B-lactam antibiotics (penicillins, and cephalosporins) Diagnosis: - healthy individuals not recently hospitalized - associated with serious and fatal infection - may also be acquired in health care setting Treatment: - antimicrobial therapy - Vancomycin resistant strains exist -hand washing and aseptic technique is critical in preventing spread in hospitalsTetanus- Caused by clostridium tetani; produces tetanospasmin in low oxygen tension environments causes prolonged muscle spasms. - Diagnosis: clinical history of wound infection and muscle stiffness. - Treatment/Prevention: antibiotic therapy, active immunization with toxoid (DPT vaccine) and proper care wounds contaminated with soil, prophylactic use of antitoxin. - Symptoms: cramping, and twisting of skeletal muscles and tightness of jaw muscles (early in disease), lock jaw, characteristic facial expression, backward bowing back, tonic convulsion, rigidity of trunk (advanced disease), and (Death) usually results from spasms of diaphragm and intercostal respiratory muscles. (harder to breathe)Trachoma- Cause of blindness throughout the world. - Transmitted: by contact with infected soap and towels, and flies. - Treatment/Prevention: diagnosis and treatment same as for inclusions conjunctivitis, health education, personal hygiene, and access to clean water for washing. - Symptoms: (First Infected) inflamed conjunctiva, leading to inflammatory cell exudate and necrotic eyelash follicles. (Reinfection) pannus formation (vascularization of cornea) lead. to scarring. Occurs blindness.Botulism - infant- Endospores ingested in honey or house dust, germinate, reproduce, and produce exotoxin. Also constipation, listlessness, general weakness and poor appetite, death may result from respiratory failure. - Treatment/Prevention: symptomatic/supportive therapy, safe food processing and not feeding babies honey under 1 year of age.Typhoid fever- Caused by salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar typhi, gram negative rod. This is acquired by ingestion of food or water contaminated by feces of infected humans or person to person contact. - Symptoms: fever, slow heart rate, rash; may lead to septic shock - Treatment/Prevention: antibiotic, vaccine, purification of drinking water, preventing food handling by carriers, and isolation of patients.Staphylococcal food poisoning- Results from ingestion of improperly stored or cooked food (e.g., ham, processed meats, chicken salad, ice cream, and hollandaise sauce) in which Staphylococcus aureus has grown and released enterotoxin. - Bacteria produce heat-stable enterotoxins in food. - Properly cooking the food will not destroy toxin; intoxications can result from thoroughly cooked foods - Symptoms: include abdominal pain, cramps, diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea. - Treatment/Prevention: fluid and electrolyte replacement and avoidance of food contamination, control of personnel involved in food preparation and distribution.Anthrax- Caused by bacillus anthracis. - Gram positive, aerobic, endospore-forming - Transmitted: by direct contact with infected animals or their products. - Treatment/Prevention: antibiotic therapy, immunization of animals and person at high risk.Psittacosis (Ornithosis)- Caused by chalmydophila psittaci; enters the respiratory tract, is transported to and reproduces in the liver and spleen, and then invades the lungs. - Transmitted: to humans by direct contact with infected birds or by inhalation of dried bird excreta. - Treatment/Prevention: antibiotic therapyQ Fever- Caused by Coxiella burnetii, intracellular gram-negative; proliferates in the lungs. - Transmitted: ticks between animals, contaminated dust to humans, occupational hazards among slaughterhouse workers, farmers and veterinarians. - Symptoms: acute onset of severe headache, malaise, confusion, sore throat, chills, sweats, nausea, chest pain, myalgia, and fever. - Diagnosis: in national reference labs using immunofluorescence - Treatment/Prevention: antibiotic therapy, public education, protective clothing, and vector control.Tularemia- Caused by francisella tularensis which is spread from animal reservoirs by several mechanism. - Spread by: arthropod bites, direct contact with infected tissue, inhalation of aerosolized, ingestion of contaminated water or food. - Symptoms: primary ulcerative lesion at infective site, enlarged lymph nodes, and high fever - Diagnosis: using PCR, culture of bacteria, and immunodiagnostic tests. - Treatment/Prevention: antibiotic therapy, public education, protective clothing, vector control, and immunization for high risk individuals.Clostridum difficile- Anaerobic, spore forming bacillus found in the intestines of some healthy people. - Symptoms: inflammation, diarrhea, fever, nausea, cramping - Treatment/Prevention: antibiotics, fecal microbiome transplant.Bacterial Vaginosis- Caused by gardenella vaginalis - gram negative to gram-variable pleomorphic nonmotile rods. - Typically a mild disease characterized by copious, frothy, fishy-smelling vaginal discharge, itchy/pain. - Diagnosis: microscopic observation of clue cells - vaginal epithelial cells covered in bacteria. - Treatment: with metronidazole clears the infection.Dental Decay (Caries)- Production of acids leads to release of calcium and phosphate ions from enamel followed by remineralization. - Treatment/Prevention: no drugs available, good dental hygiene, and minimal ingestion of sucrose and professional cleaning twice per year.Periodontal Disease- Initiated by formation of subgingival plaque. - Results, caused by host immune response to both plaque bacteria and tissue destruction. leads to swelling of the tissue and formation of periodontal pockets. bacteria will colonize these pockets and formed periodontal abscess, bone destruction, inflammation of gingiva, and tissue necrosis. - If condition is not treated, teeth may be lost.