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AP Psych - Development 2022
Terms in this set (127)
The 9 months before birth
The first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception.
When a sperm fertilizes an egg and forms a zygote
The fertilized egg
Monozygotic Twins / Identical Twins
Formed when one zygote splits into two separate masses of cells, each of which develops into a separate embryo. They grow into two babies with the same DNA.
Dizygotic Twins / Fraternal Twins
Two babies born at the same time. They come from two separate eggs fertilized by two different sperm cells. They do not have the same DNA.
The second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month.
The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
The third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth.
In humans, the term for the developing organism between the embryonic stage and birth.
Medical care during pregnancy that monitors the health of both the mother and the fetus
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Inborn automatic response to a particular form of stimulation that all healthy babies are born with (ex: rooting, sucking, grasping, moro reflex (startle), Babinski)
A reflex in which a newborn turns its head in response to a gentle stimulus on its cheek
Startle / Moro Reflex
A series of movements in which an infant flings out the arms, fans the fingers, and arches the back in response to a sudden noise or being laid down on its back.
Tonic Neck / Fencing Reflex
Turning an infant's head to one side quickly causes the baby to extend the arm and leg on that side and flex the other side.
When a baby's foot is stroked from heal to toes, the baby will spread their toes.
Lifting head, Rolling over, Sitting up with support, Sitting up without Support, Crawling, Walking
Stages of Infant Motor Development
Gross Motor Skills
Physical abilities involving large body movements, such as walking and jumping
Fine Motor Skills
Physical abilities involving small body movements, especially of the hands and fingers, such as drawing and using a fork.
The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence (teenage years)
The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
Maturing of the adrenal glands, causes the start of puberty
Maturing of the sex glands.
-Secondary sexual characteristics develop.
-Breasts and hips in girls.
-Facial hair and deepened voice in boys.
Primary Sexual Charactersistics
Characteristics associated with the development of the organs and structures of the body that directly relate to reproduction
(ex: ovaries, testes, and external genitalia)
Secondary Sexual Characteristics
Bodily structures that change with sexual maturity but are not directly related to reproduction.
(ex: growth of public hair and facial hair, and voice deepening)
The first menstrual period
The transitional period from adolescence to adulthood, spanning approximately 18 to 25 years of age
Failure to Launch Syndrome
When people do not transition out of adolescence into young adulthood.
40-65 years. The focus is on raising a family, success at work and contributing to society.
Late Adulthood / Old Age
Ages 60-79; The stage in which one experiences a decrease in speed and power, loss of flexibility, and lowing mental capacity
A slow, progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgment, that is often accompanied by personality changes
A progressive and irreversible brain disorder, often with an onset after age 80, characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning. It is connected to a decrease in myelin covering the axons of neurons.
Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
Theory that states as adults get older, they start to prioritize having a smaller social network filled with people they're close with instead of a big social network with people who are not as close
Medical care for people who are dying. The focus is on comfort and having positive interactions with family instead of treating illness.
Psychologist who theorized the terminally ill progress through sequence of: Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance (5 stages of grief)
5 Stages of Death/Grief as proposed by Kubler-Ross
First stage of death/grief
Second stage of death/grief
Third stage of death/grief
Fourth stage of death/grief
Fifth stage of death/grief
Sex (male, female, intersex)
The biological differences that distinguish males from females
The sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two and males have one.
The sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
Displaying both traditional masculine and feminine personality traits.
Having both male and female physical organs.
A person who identifies with the other sex and who seeks to transition to the other sex by means of hormone treatment and sex-reassignment surgery
The belief that one sex is innately superior to the other
Any action that benefits men or women over the other sex.
The process of changing genders
The psychological (mental) aspects of being male or female. These are learned and are based on one's culture.
The process of learning the behaviors, thoughts, and emotions associated with a particular gender.
A set of expected behaviors for males and females
(ex: Men are expected to be strong and not emotional; Women are expected to be emotion-based and gentle)
The way in which a person expresses their gender identity, typically through their appearance, dress, and behavior.
Generalizations based on oversimplified ideas about gender roles.
A person's sense of being male or female
Term used when gender identity and/or expression aligns with the sex assigned at birth
The idea that heterosexuality is the normal sexual orientation.
A term for individuals whose gender expression is different from societal expectations related to gender.
A term applied to individuals who do not identify with being female or male; also could describe individuals who identify with being both
Sexual identities and behaviors that go beyond traditional sex and gender labels, roles, and expectations
Denoting or relating to a person who does not identify themselves as having a fixed gender. (people who change genders and aren't set on one)
An umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex
A person's sexual attraction preference for members of a particular sex.
Asexual / Ace
Having no sexual attraction to others
Bisexual / Pansexual
Attracting to people of all sexes and gender identities
Bing attracted to the opposite sex
(men <-> women)
A female homosexual
A male homosexual
Questioning / Bicurious
An individual who is unsure of their sexual orientation
Psychologists who developed the four stage theory of cognitive development.
Piaget's idea that we use use existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences. Ex: A child seeing a deliver truck for the first time and understanding that it is another kind of truck.
Piaget's idea that we adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. Ex: A child seeing a Great Dane for the first time and learning that dogs and be big and small.
3. Concrete Operational
4. Formal Operational
Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
The understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of view.
(ex: if someone walks in front of something, you know that the things behind that person still exist)
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
In Piaget's theory, the child's difficulty to see things from another person's point of view.
Concrete Operational Stage
Tn Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects. Ex: A child knows that water in a skinny cup is the same amount if poured into a wide cup.
The ability of children to know that things can change and be changed back.
Formal Operational Stage
In Piaget's theory, the last stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
Psychologist famous for social development theory. He investigated how culture affects development. Also developed the idea of the zone of proximal development.
Vygotsky's theory of how social interactions between members of a culture and the child's surroundings affect children's development.
Zone of Proximal Development
The range between a child's current level of knowledge and their potential level of knowledge that they can reach if they receive guidance.
Freud's childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
Freud's first psychosexual stage (0-18 months) in which experience centers on the pleasures and frustrations associated with the mouth -- sucking, biting, chewing.
(18-36 months) Freud's second psychosexual stage during which a child learns to control his bodily excretions.
Freud's third psychosexual stage of development, from about age 4 through age 7, during which children obtain gratification primarily from the genitals.
Freud's fourth stage of psychosexual development from about age 6 to puberty during which children develop gender roles.
Freud's last stage of psychosexual development, from the onset of puberty through adulthood.
According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved. (Ex: "That person is so anal!")
Psychologists who developed the 8-stage theory of Psychosocial Development.
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (birth-1 year)
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2-3 years)
3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years)
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11 years)
5. Identity vs. Identity Diffusion (12-18 years)
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood: 19-mid 20s)
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation/Self-Absorbtion (middle age: late 20s-50s)
8. Integrity vs. Dispair (old age: 60s and beyond)
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
Trust vs. Mistrust
Erikson's first stage during the first year of life, infants learn to trust when they are cared for in a consistent warm manner
Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
Erikson's second stage in which a toddler learns to exercise will and to do things independently; failure to do so causes shame and doubt.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Erikson's third stage in which the child finds independence in planning, playing and other activities.
Industry vs. Inferiority
Erikson's fourth stage between 6 and 11 years, when the child learns to be productive
Identity vs. Confusion
Erikson's fifth stage of development, in which the person tries to figure out "Who am I?" but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Erikson's sixth stage in which individuals form deeply personal relationships, marry, and begin families.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Erikson's seventh stage of social development in which middle-aged people begin to devote themselves more to fulfilling one's potential and doing public service.
Integrity vs. Despair
Erikson's final stage in which those near the end of life look back and evaluate their lives.
An emotional connection with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
A person's characteristic, or most common emotional level or reaction.
Psychologist who studied attachment in monkeys. He conducted the wire mother and cloth mother experiment.
Harlow's Wire & Cloth Mother Experiments
Experiment done by Harry Harlow that showed that contact comfort is more important to infants than food/sustenance.
Psychologist who studied how different attachment styles affected children.
Ainsworth's Strange Situation Experiment
An experiment that observed children in unusual situations and measured how they reacted based on their relationship with their parents.
A relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver.
An attachment style marked by discomfort over, or resistance to, being close to others.
An attachment style in which, after a brief separation, infants want to be held but are difficult to console.
An attachment style that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions to the caregiver's departure and return.
A parenting style in which the parent gives reasonable demands and consistent limits, expresses warmth and affection, and listens to the child's point of view.
A parenting style where parents are highly demanding and controlling, with little or no affection.
A parenting style in which parents provide high levels of support but an inconsistent enforcement of rules.
Parenting that is neither supportive nor demanding because parents are indifferent or absent.
The ability to understand and share the feelings of another.
psychologist who proposed stage theory of moral development (preconventional, conventional, and postconventional).
First level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior.
Second level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by conforming to society's norms, rules and laws.
Kohlberg's highest stage of morality. This occurs in only some adults and puts the greater good of society above all other concerns, including following rules or laws. (Ex: MLK breaking unjust laws.)
Psychologist who criticized Köhlberg for only focusing on boys and overlooking potential differences between boys and girls. She suggested that girls focus more on relationships than laws and principles.
A view that development is a cumulative process in which people gradually improving and change over time.
A view that development takes place in unique stages, which happen at specific times or ages.
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