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integral protein

inserted into phospholipid bilayer


not embedded into phospholipid bilayer, but are attached to the membrane surface

how do integrals stick to the membrane?

solubility of amino acid

where are carbohydrates found in the membrane?

only in outer surface


form glycophospholipids and glcoproteins; recognize self vs. others

passive transport

3 types: 1. diffusion 2. osmosis 3. facilitated diffusion; does not require energy


net movement of atoms, ions, or molecules downa concentration gradient


when the concentration is equal on both sides; no net movement of materials

factors that efffect difusion

1. concentration 2. temp. 3. pressure 4. particle size 5. mixing


diffusion of water

isotonic solution

cell and water are equal in concentration; no change in cell size

hypotonic solution

cells water is lower than outside water; water moves into cell; cells swells, may burst

hypertonic solution

cells water is higher than outside water; water moves out of cell; cell shrinks


regulation of solute concentrations and water balance by a cell or organism


swollen; only in plant cells


limp; lacking stiffness; on in plant cells


cytoplasm shrivels and plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall, occurs when cell loses water in hypertonic solution; only in plant cells

facilitated diffusion

uses transport protein to help materials through the cell membrane, no ATP

carrier protein

proteins that transport specific substances across a biological membrane; molecule specific; undergoes change in shape;

ion channel

Protein channel in a cell membrane that allows passage of a specific ion down its concentration gradient.

gated channel

A protein channel in a cell membrane that opens or closes in response to a particular stimulus.

3 types of active transport

1. carrier mediated 2. endocytosis 3. exocytosis

carrier mediated transport

active transport of materials into cells AGAINST the concentration gradient, high to low

sodium potassium pump

moves sodium out of cell and potassium in, 3 sodium, 2 potassium; in animal cells; creates a positive charge on outside and negative inside


movement of H+ that allows other material to be transported into the cell as the H+ diffuses back across the cell membrane


process by which a cell surrounds and engulfs substances; pinches off from the cell membrane and becomes a membrane-bound organelle; 3 types: pinocytosis, phagocytosis, receptor-mediated


membrane bound organelle


endocytosis involving the transport of solutes or fluids


endocytosis involving the transport of large particles or whole cells


movement of specific molecules into a cell by binding to specifc cites on the cell even though they may not be highly concentrated in teh extra-cellular fluid


molecules that bind


process by which vessicles inside a cell fuses with the cell membrane and release its contents to the external environment, how proteins exit cells

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