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Development can be defined as the pattern of movement or change that:
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Terms in this set (132)
psychologist, sociologist, anthropologist, neuroscientist medical researchers all share an interest in unlocking the mysteries of development through the life span this indicates how development ismultidisciplinaryindividuals are changing beings in a changing world which characteristic of development is reflected in this statementDevelopment is contextualInfluences that generally affect a generation (for example, the effect of the Vietnam war on the baby boomers) are considered _____ influences.normative history-gradedthe cultural makeup of the US population has changed over the past few years because of immigration and other factors such as long term changes in the genetic and cultural makeup of a population are part ofnormative historical change_______ encompasses the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generationculture______ is a governments course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizenssocial policysocioeconomic status (SES) refers toa person's position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristicsChanges in motor skills, nutrition, exercise, the hormonal changes of puberty, and cardiovascular decline are all examples of _____ processes that affect development.biological______ processes involve changes in the individuals relationships with other people changes in emotions and changes in personalitysocioemotional_____ processes refer to changes in the individuals thought intelligence and languagecognitiveThe developmental period whether one is an infant adolescent or middle aged person refers toa time frame in a persons life that is characterized by certain featuresThe _____ period is the time from conception to birthprenatalwhich of the following is a characteristic of the developmental period known as early childhooddevelopment of school readiness skills________ is a time of establishing personal and economic independence, career development and for many, selecting a mate, learning to live with that person in an intimate way, starting a family and reading childrenearly adulthoodLate adulthood is a time oflife review, adjustment to new social roles, and diminishing strength and health.the developmental pattern experienced by most people in which psychological functioning peaks in early middle age and starts to decline in the early 80s is callednormal agingDetermining _____ age involves knowing the functional capacities of a person's vital organs.biological______ age is an individuals adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological agepsychologicalin the nature nurture issue nature refers to an organisms ______, nurture to its _______biological inheritance; environmental experiencesThe question of whether a fun loving carefree adolescent is bound to have difficulty holding down a 9-5 job as an adults most likely reflects thestability-change issuecontinuity-discontinuity issue in development, continuity refers to ______ while discontinuity implies ______gradual change; distinct stagesThe concept of discontinuity is characterized by:qualitative change_____ theories describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion.psychoanalyticThe theory that was created by Erik Erikson is known as the _____ theory of development.psychosocialDr. Wong is a cognitive developmental theorist, so we know that he will stress the importance of _____ in understanding development.conscious thoughtsPiaget's four stages of cognitive developmentstart at birth and continue through adulthood.Vygotskys theory emphasizes how ____ guide cognitive developmentculture and social interactiona characteristic feature of information processing psychologists is that they are most likely toemphasize that individuals manipulate information monitor it and strategize about itbehavioral and social cognitive theories emphasizecontinuity in developmentAccording to Urie Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory, a person's family, peers, school, and neighborhood constitute his/her:microsystemthe idea that no singular theory can explain life-span development as a whole, but that each theory plays an important role is referred to as aeclectic theoretical orientationFlevy, a marketing researcher, is conducting an extensive market study and has hired a big group of college students to hand out a standard set of questions to shoppers at malls and supermarkets and to seek their responses. Which of the following methods of data collection is Flevy using?surveysA ______ is carefully regulated procedure in which one or more factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are constantexperimentthe cross sectional approach to developmental research comparesindividuals of different agesthe longitudinal method of research consists of studyingthe same individuals over a long period of time.psychology's newest approach _______ emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and "survival of the fittest" in shaping behaviorevolutionary psychologyAccording to life-span developmental Paul Baltes (2003) the benefits conferred by evolutionary selection ______ with agedecreasein the context of evolution and life span development, which of the following statements is true of Paul BaltesHe believed natural selection occurred primarily during the first half of lifeas an alternative way to the "______ evolutionism" presented in evolutionary psychology Albert bandura proposed a _____ viewone sided, bidirectional_____ is a complex molecule with a double helix shape, like a spiral staircase, and contains genetic informationDNA_____, the units of hereditary information, are short segments of DNA. They direct cells to reproduce themselves and to assemble proteins.genesPhenotypes include _____ and _____ characteristics.physical and psychologicalfor each genotype, a range of ______ can be expressed, thurs providing a source of variabilityphenotypes______ is the social and legal process by which a parent-child relationship is established between persons not related by birth.adoption_____ is the field that seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development.behavior geneticsthe _____ view states that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and environmentepigenetic_____ is the interaction of a specific measured variation in the DNA and a specific measured aspect of the environment.Gene × environment (G × E) interactionA teratogen is any agent that can cause:birth defects_____ act on the nervous system in such a way as to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moodspsychoactive drugsThe cephalocaudal pattern is the sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at thetop—the head—with physical growth and differentiation of features gradually working their way down from top to bottom.the _____ pattern of growth is the developmental sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremitiesproximodistalWhich of the following statements is true regarding brain developmentalextensive brain development contains after birth through infancy and laterthe _______ includes the cerebral cortex and several structures beneath itforebrainaccording to the neuroconstructivist view of the brain developmentbiological processes and environmental conditions influence the brain's developmentaccording to dynamic system theoryinfants assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting_____ are built-in reactions to stimuli; they govern the newborn's movements, which are automatic and beyond the newborn's control.reflexes______ motor skills are skills that involve large muscle activities such as moving one's arms and walkinggross______ occurs when information interacts with sensory receptors- the eyes ears tounge nostrils and skinsensationthe interruption of sensory information is calledperceptionevolution takes placeover the course of many generations______ introduced the theory of evolution by natural selection in 1859Charles Darwinaccording to apa guides all participants must know what their research participation will involve and what risks might develop. this guideline addresses which of the following issuesinformed consenta group of people who are born at a similar point in history and share similar experiences as a result is referred to as acohorti'm the context of evolutionary psychology albert bandura acknowledged thatevolutionary pressures created changes in biological structuresJean Piaget believed that children:actively construct their own cognitive worldSchemes are:actions or mental representations that organize knowledgeI'm considering the big issue of whether nature or nurture plays the more important role in infant development Elizabeth spelke endorses a ______ approach which states that infants are born with domain specific innate knowledge systemscore knowledgein the context of cognitive development decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus is known ashabituation____ involves the retention of information over timememorythe form of communication that is based on a system of symbols is calledlanguagethe interactionist view of language development emphasizes thatboth biology and experience contribute to language developmentFeelings or affects that occur when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or her, especially to his/her well-being are known as:emotionsthe infants ability to regulate emotions is tied tothe gradual maturation of the frontal regions of the cerebral cortexwhich of the following is an important role played by emotions during infancycommunicationsome experts on infant socioemotional development such as jerome kagan conclude that ______ makes it unlikely that emotions which require thought can be experienced in the first yearthe structural immaturity of the infant brain_____ involves individual differences in behavioral styles, emotions, and characteristic ways of responding.temperament__________ refers to the match between a child's temperament and the environmental demands the child must cope with.goodness of fit_____ has been the most consistent predictor of a secure attachment.parental sensitivityWorld Health Organization recently recommended that young children engage in about _____ physical activity per day total3 hourswhich of the following determines the categories of obesity, overweight, and at risk of being overweightbody mass indexThe inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's perspective is known as _____.egocentrismzone of proximal development is vygotskys term forthe range of tasks difficult for a child to master alone but that can be learned with help from the context of theories of cognitive development unlike Vygotsky piaget believed thatcognition primarily directs language_____ attention is focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment.sustainedUsing rehearsal, we can keep information in short-term memory for a much longer period. In this context, rehearsal means:repeating information after it has been presented_____ refers to an umbrella-like concept that consists of a number of higher-level cognitive processes linked to the development of the brains prefrontal cortex which play a role in managing thoughts to engage in goal directed behavior and self controlrepeating information after it has been presentedThe theory of _____ refers to awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others.mind______ is a philosophy of education in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activitiesMontessori approach______ is based on knowledge of the typical progress of a child within an age span as well as the uniqueness of the childDevelopmentally Appropriate Practicewhich of the following approaches holds that the processes of reinforcement punishment and imitation explain the development of moral behaviorthe behavioral and social cognitive approach______ refers to an internal regulation of standards of right and wrong that involves an intervention of all three components of moral development namely moral thought, feeling, and behaviorconscience______ involves a sense of one's own gender including knowledge understanding and acceptance of being male or femalegender identitysocial role theory suggests thatthe social hierarchy and division of labor are important causes of gender differences in power, assertiveness, and nurturingthe ______ of gender stems from the view that a preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parentpsychoanalytic theoryAccording to evolutionary psychologists, natural selection favored females who choseambitious mates who could provide their children with resources and protection.cultural changes that occur when one culture comes into contact with another are referred to asacculturationalso known as self worth or self image global evaluations of the selfself esteema learner centered approach emphasizes the which emphasizes the importance of individuals actively constructing their own knowledge and understanding with guidanceconstructivist approachThe belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomesself-efficacya structured teacher centered approach characterized by teacher direction and control high expectations for students progress and mastery of academic skills efforts to keep negative affect to a minimum is also used to this approachdirect instruction approachcharacterized by deliberate efforts to manage one's behavior emotions and thoughtsself regulationdomain specific evaluations of the selfself conceptwhich of the following is the more accurate vision of adolescenceFor most individuals, adolescence is a time of evaluation, decision making, commitment, and carving out a place in the world.for most people pubertyends long before adolescence does.a national study of u.s. adolescents revealed that physical activityincreased until 13 years of age but then declined through 18 years of age.According to David Elkind, personal fable and imaginary audience are parts of adolescent:egocentrismIdentify developmenttakes place in boys and piecesEthnic _____ is an enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group, along with the attitudes and feelings related to that membership.identityConflicts arise between parents and adolescents because:few parents anticipate how strongly their adolescent will push for autonomy and responsibility.a _____ is a ceremony or ritual that marks an individuals transition from one status to another and mostly focuses on the transition to adult statusrite of passagewhich of the following best explains why middle adulthood starts later and lasts longer now then in the early 1900speople today have healthier lifestyles than people in the early 1900sfluid intelligence is the ability toreason abstractlycrystallized intelligence isan individual's accumulated information and verbal skillsAccording to Viktor Frankl, the three most distinct human qualities are freedom, responsibility, and:spiritualitybased on the work of roy baumeister and kathleen vohs which of the following is true of the need for efficacythis need involves the belief that one can make a differenceaccording to levinson the transition from dependence to independence is marked by theformation of a valiant concludes that ______ is a time for detecting parental flaws and discovering the truth about childhoodadolescencethe _____ life events approach emphasizes that how life events influence an individual's developmental depends not only on the life event itself but also in mediating factorscontemporaryAdult development experts are virtually unanimous in their belief that midlife crises:have been exaggerated.researchers have found that on average a sense of personal control peaks in _______ and then declinesmidlifethe ______ model of personality developmental states that's ugh time and age people become more adept at interacting with their environment in ways that promote increased stability in personalitycumulative personalitywhat are the two major forms of loveromantic and affectionate