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APUSH Chapters 35 & 36

Terms in this set (36)

Despite receiving a disproportionate share of defense contracts, 1.6 million African-Americans moved north to seek jobs in the North and West- Explosive tensions developed over employment, housing, and segregated facilities- A. Phillip Randolph, head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, threatened a massive "Negro March on Washington" in 1941 to demand equal opportunity for blacks in war jobs and in the armed forces- FDR responded with an executive order forbidding discrimination in defense industries- In addition to the order, the Fair Employment Practices Commission was established to monitor compliance to the edict and address hiring discrimination to see to it that no hiring discrimination practices were used against blacks seeking employment in war industries- The greatest consequence of World War II for American race relations was the massive migration of African Americans from the rural South to northern and western cities- The northward migration of African Americans accelerated after World War II because mechanical cotton pickers came into use- African- Americans were also drafted into the armed forces, though they were still generally assigned to service branches rather than combat units and subjected to petty degradations such as segregated blood banks for the wounded- Many served in the Army Air-Corp- Of the 1,000 African-American pilots trained, 445 saw combat in Europe and in 1,600 missions, they never lost a bomber to enemy fighters- Blacks in the armed forces rallied behind the "Double V", victory over dictators abroad and racism at home- Membership in the NAACP shot up to 500,000 and a new militant organization was formed called the Congress of Racial Equality
1950-1970- Beginning about 1950, the American economy surged onto a dazzling plateau of sustained growth that was to last virtually uninterrupted for two decades- The long economic boom was fueled primarily by low energy costs- One striking consequence of the postwar economic boom was a vast expansion of the home owning middle class- National income nearly doubled in the 1950s and almost doubled again in the 1960s- Much of the prosperity of the 1950s and 1960s rested on the underpinnings of colossal military budgets- Americans, some 6% of the world's people, were enjoying about 40% of the planet's worth- The prosperity underwrote social mobility- It paved the way for the eventual success of the civil rights movement, functions vast new welfare programs like Medicare, and it gave Americans the confidence to exercise unprecedented international leadership in the Cold War era- The post-World War II prosperity in the United States was most beneficial to women- Women accounted for a quarter of the American work force at the end of World War II and for nearly half of the labor pool five decades later- The clash between the demands of suburban housewifery and the realities of employment eventually sparked a feminist revolt in the 1960s- World War II production, colossal military budgets in the 1950s and 1960s, and cheap energy contributed to the economic boom- Workers also made spectacular gains in productivity, the amount of output per hour of work- The family farm became extinct as consolidation produced giant agribusiness