BSC2011 All assesments

Assume you are a researcher investigating the transcriptional regulation of gene Q in eukaryotic cells. You discover that there is descreased expression of gene Q in these cells.
Which of the following BEST describes a potential regulatory mechanism of gene Q?
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In class, we learned about the importance of gamete recognition during sea urchine fertilization. Imagine there is an error in an egg cell's protein receptors, in which these receptors fail to "recognize" sperm BINDIN proteins.

Which of the following is LEAST likely to occur as a direct result of this error
Gene Q codes for a morphogen that regulates the anterior-posterior axis of an insect. High concentrations of the Q morphogen result in the formation of structures associated w/ the antior/head of an animal. In a hypothetical study, researchers were able to heavily methylate the histones associated with Gene Q. What effect could this have on development?Heavily methylated genes are not easily accessible for transcription. Heavy methylation will result in low concentrations of morphogen Q, potentially leading to no formation of an anterior/head region in the insect.Which of the following is true regarding the scientific method, theories, and hypotheses?Deductive investigation involves formaing specific predictions of results, given that a certain general premise is correct.Which of the following is TRUS regarding the Steward's (1950s) carrot experiment and Gurdon et al. ( 1975) nuclear transplation experiment?While both studies supported the "differential expression of genetic material" hypothesis, Gurdon et al. (1975) highlighted the role of a differentiation on the genetic potential of a nucleus.Which of the following BEST describes a role of cytoplasmic determinants (CDs) in animal embryonic development?CDs present in the gray crescent direct development of dorsal features such as the neutral tube in amphibiansImagine that there was an abnormality in step(4) of this figure which prevented the cortical granules from fusing with the plasma membrane. Which of the following BEST describes how this would affect fertilization?The fertilization envelope would not form and the slow block to polyspermy would not take place. This could increase the odds of polyspermyThe researchers found that: the egg contains very little yolk any yolk that is present is evenly distributed throughout the egg cell given this information, which of the following is the BEST prediction about cleavage in this speciesCell division will be synchronous because yolk directs cleavage and early cell division.Which of the following is not an example of how changes in cell movement play a role in embryonic development?Microtubules constrict at one end of ectoderm cells, causing each cell to form a wedge during neurulationIt is known that the dorsal lip contains "gray crescent" Why is this significant?The "gray crescent" region in frog embryos contains CDs that signal for the development of dorsal featuresImagine a scenario in which the regulatory protein in the figure above had a mutation. This mutation causes the regulatory protein to be constantly active, regardless of the presence of signaling molecules. WHich of the following is the Most likely outcome, given, this scenario?Proteins 1, 2, 3 from the genes in this operon would never be producedWhich study system would BEST suit this question? How can differences in gene regulation of homeotic genes produce major changes in morphology?The same set of homeotic genes are expressed in different regions of the body in two different fly species.Assume you are researching characteristics of the stages of animal embryonic development in a new species of amphibian. At a particular point in development, you note the activity of several processes: -cell division -gene regulation -cell movement Which of the following stages of animal embryonic development could you rule OUT in this case? WHat is your evidence?Cleavage. Cells in this stage undergo division to produce a blastula, but the resulting cells are undifferentiated. Gene regulation and cell movement have not taken place yet.What is the relationship between cell division, cell differentiation, and gene regulation?Cell division alone would result in a big ball of undifferentiated cells. Cell differentation occurs as a result of regulation of the expression of certain genes, leading to specialized structure and function of cells.What is the relationship between the gray crescent, blastopore and neurulation?The blastopore forms on the future dorsal side of the blastula, just below they gray screscent. The dorsal lip of the blastopore therefore contains CDs necessary for formation of dorsal tissues, such as those in neurulation.We discussed the formation and purpose of the blastocoel during development. Which of the following is TRUS regarding the blastocoel?The blastocoal is a hollow, fluid-filled space that provides room for future archenteron formation.We learned about the role of organizer regions in pattern formation. Which of the following is an example of an organizer region?In spemann and mangold (1924), the transplanted dorsal lip caused the formation of dorsal features (including the neural tube) on the ventral side of the gastrula.We discussed the formation of the dorsal-ventral axis in amphibians. Which of the following statements is TRUe regarding this process?The axis is established at random, based on the point of sperm contact in the animal pole.USE CELL TO BABY DIAGRAM Which of the following statements is true regarding the structures in this figure?While cell division does take place between structures (C) and (D) these structures are the same size- the university of the genetic code -the similarities in homeotic genes across many living organisms Which of the following BEST describes a general conclusion we can make about the evolution of these traits?These traits evolved early in evolutionary history and are adaptive (valuable for survival and reproduction)is the following question scientific, or not? How do you know? WHat causes "mad cow" diseaseScientific. Science investigates rational concepts via observation and experimentation.Which of the following is an example of a molecular control that prevents expression of a particular gene?heavy methylation of histonesCell division, cell differentiation and prohogenesis play important roles in animal embryonic development. Which of the following BEST describes the role of cell division?Increases the # of cells by relying on DNA replicationWHy are the cortical granules an important structure in sea urchin fertilizationCortical granules cause depolaraization of the cell mebrane to prevent polyspermy.Which of the following is True regarding the blastula and gastrula?The gastrula lacks a blastocoel.We see evidence of changes in cell movement during gastrulation. Which of the following is NOT an example of this?Ossificatin centers are formed to deposit bone material around the neutral tubestudying cleavage in a new species of animal. you observe the following characteristics about the egg in this species: -very little yolk -yolk that is present is evenly distributed throughout the egg cell given this information, you predict that cell division during cleavage will be _____ and the blastocoel will be _____.synchronous; sphericalYou are observing gastrulation in an amphibian species. You are tracking the movement and differentiation of a particular cell, located towards the interior of the developing gastrula. This cell lines the archenteron as it forms. This cell is most likely derived from___ and may become ____ in the embryoEndoderm; lining of the digestive tractYou are studying embryonic development in a new animal species. You observe the following during a particular stage in development: -cell division -cell movement -cell differentiation Given this information, you rule out___ as the current stage of development because ___.fertilization; the zygote is an undifferentiated totipotent cellWhich of the following BEST describes the conclusion of the study conducted by Hans Spemann (1938)?Cells with gray screscent cause the development of dorsal features in slamandersUNIT 2 BEGINS HEREMid Unit 2 assessmentWhich of the following is true for a cell that is 2n=100?There will be 50 tetrads during metaphase 1 or meiosis 1."Two parents witht he geneotype DdEe mate. What is the probability of producing an offspring that is homozygous recessive at both loci? We can think of the genotype of a single locus (gene) as a single independent event. Given this info, would you use "AND" or "OR" rule to answer this question"And" rule, because this rule predicts the probability of observing multiple independent events. The outcome of each event is not influenced by the other.Use figure of cell in a stage of cell division What was the ploidy and chromosome number of the ORIGINAL parent cell that this cell came from?Diploid; 2n=8new tumor suppressor gene. Which of the following predictions is MOST consistent with what we know about how these genes work?A mutation produced a defective transcription factor that failed to inhibit cell sea urchine you discover that the gametes each have n=6 chromosomes, and these unreplicated chromosomes have a mass of 4pg. which of the following is an accurate conclusion you could dram about the somatic cells of this animal?In G1, somatic cells would contain 12 chromosomes and 8pg of DNA.Which of the following best describes the role that fertilization plays in this life cycle?fertilization restores the chromosome number by fusing haploid nuclei into a diploid zygote100% long legs What does this tell you about the genotype of the parent individuals in the "unknown" vial? What kind of cross did you perform?Their genotype is homozygous dominant (BB). This was a test crossmutation into the gene that codes for the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) associated with the G2 check point. This mutation "knocks out" the gene, causing no Cdk proteins to be made. Which of the following is possible a consequence of this mutation?The MPF complex is unlikely yo form and M phase is unlikely to occurEND OF UNIT 2 AssessmentHela cells question WHich of the following BEST describes a potential explanation explanation for this argument?Although mitosis produces identical cells, mutations have likely occurred that can make direct comparisons and extensions of research on these cells over long periods of time problematic.Imagine that during meisos I, amutation in a cell results in the failure of microtubules to bind at the kineochores on some chromosomes. WHich of the following is the MOST likely result of such a defectthe resulting daughter cells will not receive the correct number of chromosomesMeiosis___ chromosome number. Fetilization____ chromosomes number. Mitosis ____ chromosome number.reduces, restores, conservesImagine a cell that is 2n+60. Which of the following is TRUE regarding this cell?During prophase II of meiosis II, each daughter cell will contain 60 sister chromatids.How many diff kinds of phenotypes are possible among offspring produced by the following two parents? Assume complete dominance and independent assortment. FfGgHH x FfggHh4What is this figure )chromosome type figure) and which of the following is true regarding the individual (human) from which this figure was taken?karyotype; This individual was Klinefelter syndrom.Which type of experimental design