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Development Practice Questions
Terms in this set (51)
Consider the moral dilemma faced by the husband who is trying to decide to steal a drug he cannot afford, but which will save his wife's life. The person who reasons that it would be all right to steal the drug because the right to life is more important than property rights has reached the _____ stage of moral development.
Erikson's developmental theory has received criticism for
failing to capture female development as well as it does male development.
Recent research has indicated that the speculation of a tendency of females to make more care-based judgments on moral dilemmas
is not supported.
A major cognitive advance made during the sensorimotor stage is the ability to
make mental representations of objects that are not physically present.
On Halloween, Bart and Lisa go to Mr. Flanders' house. There on the porch, they find a bowl of candy with a sign that reads 'Please take only one.' Bart, however, takes two big handfuls and is encouraging Lisa to do the same. Lisa refuses, because she doesn't want to get caught. Lisa is most likely demonstrating
Sven is 3-years old. He has a small head and widely spaced eyes. He has a below average intelligence and is not as physically developed as other children his age. Sven likely is suffering from
fetal alcohol syndrome
The parenting style of authoritarian has the characteristics of
high in demandingness and low in supportiveness.
In addition to other knowledge, children in the preoperational stage seem to lack
the ability to see/understand that others may perceive the world differently.
understanding of relational terms.
Babies accustomed to a puppet jumping three times on stage show surprise if the puppet jumps only twice. This suggests that Piaget:
underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants.
Incorporating new information into existing theories is to ________ as modifying existing theories in light of new information is to ________.
What is the order of social independence that most adolescents follow as they break away from their parents and spend more time with peers?
Timmy and his mother are frosting a cake. Timmy's mother exclaims that there may not be enough frosting for the whole cake. Timmy suggests putting the frosting in a smaller bowl so that there will be more of it. What concept does Timmy fail to understand?
An important criticism of Piaget's theory of cognitive development is that
progression through stages is really more gradual.
A _____ refers to children's growing understanding of their own mental states and those of others.
theory of mind
According to Piaget, egocentrism is to conservation as the ________ stage is to the ________ stage.
preoperational; concrete operational
What does Harry Harlow's monkey experiments demonstrate?
The most important function for a mother is to provide comfort and security.
A tendency to exaggerate the extent to which our own opinions are shared by others best illustrates:
Adolescence is characterized by Piaget's
formal operational stage.
Maturation is to education as ________ is to ________.
Harlow's research with monkeys showed that
the satisfaction provided by feeding is not sufficient for attachment.
The despair of those in Erikson's final psychosocial crisis is most likely caused by
their incomplete resolution of earlier developmental crises.
Primary sex characteristics are to ________ as secondary sex characteristics are to ________.
female ovaries; deepened male voice
Branden is so apathetic about his occupational future that within two years of his high school graduation he had already been fired by four different employers. According to Erikson, Branden best illustrates:
Babies born to mothers smoke during pregnancy are more likely to
be smaller at birth.
The first time that 4-year-old Sarah saw her older brother play a flute, she thought it was simply a large whistle. Sarah's initial understanding of the flute best illustrates the process of:
With respect to the strange situation test, active contact is to ambivalence as
secure attachment is to ambivalent attachment.
Some mothers feed their infants when they show signs of hunger, whereas others fail to respond predictably to their infants' demands for food. These different maternal feeding practices are most likely to contribute to differences in infant:
Which of the following lists accurately portrays Freud's stages of psychosexual development in their correct order?
oral: anal: phallic: latency: genital
Research on rats suggests that throughout their lives they respond to stressful events better if they were ______ during the first few days of their lives.
At Kohlberg's preconventional level of moral understanding, what determines whether a particular action is viewed to be moral?
whether or not the actions result in punishment.
Which of the following is a question that typifies Erikson's integrity versus despair?
Did my being here really matter?"
Older children and preadolescents become aware that different people can interpret the same information in different ways, which leads to the adoption of a _____ to knowledge.
Assimilation occurs when people
modify new information to fit into what is already known.
According to Piaget, the two basic processes at work in cognitive growth are
assimilation and accommodation.
Pavlov, during his studies on the digestive systems of dogs, noticed surprising behaviors that led him to develop the theory of classical conditioning. This development illustrates
A person who thinks it's wrong to drive over the speed limit simply because one might get punished for doing so is demonstrating Kohlberg's ________ stage of morality.
Which of the following is one of the greatest criticisms of Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
The theory ignores feminine concepts of morality.
Parents risk undermining their child's healthy resolution of the initiative vs. guilt stage primarily by
being too controlling.
During the formal operational stage, thinking becomes
Parents who have the rejecting/neglecting parenting style are
low in demandingness and low in supportiveness.
Theories of human development have been most susceptible to criticism for overemphasizing:
discrete age-linked stages.
Older people's capacity to learn and remember meaningful material does not decline as much as their capacity to learn and remember meaningless material. This best illustrates the value of:
Ralph took money from his dad's wallet to pay off a bully who was threatening his little sister. Was this right or wrong? An individual at the postconventional level of morality would most likely say that
it was wrong, because it encourages bullying and aggression.
In Piaget's theory of development: object permanence refers to a child's ability to
think about objects that are not immediately present
Recent research findings indicate that adolescents' high-risk behaviors are least likely to be due to
Gilligan (1982), in her criticism of Kohlberg's theory, indicated that females do not base moral judgments on principles of justice, but rather use
Since Kohlberg's theory is a stage theory, then the behavior of individuals in a particular stage should be consistent. The research data indicates that
individuals in a particular stage do not show a high degree of consistency.
The ability to learn a new computer software program is to ________ as knowledge of state capitals is to ________.
fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence
As an alternative to Piaget, the theories that focus on a child's capacity to process, store, retrieve, and actually manipulate information as a function of age are called
Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present. This best illustrates Piaget's concept of:
Which of the following situations involves a self-fulfilling prophecy?
Cheryl thinks she'll fail her history test, and she does.
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