POWER - Renewable Energy Sources

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Geothermal EnergyAccording to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), has grown steadily from around 10GW worldwide in 2010 to 13.3GW in 2018Dry steam plantsare the most common types of geothermal power plan, accounting for about half of the installed plants.Dry steam plantsThey work by piping hot steam from underground reservoirs directly into turbines which power the generators to provide electricity. After powering the turbines, the steam condenses into water and is piped back into the earth via the injection well.Flash steam plantsthey pump hot water, rather than steam, directly to the surface. These plants pump hot water at a high pressure from below the earth into a "flash tank" on the surface.Flash steam plantsThe flash tank is at a much lower temperature, causing the fluid to quickly "flash" into steam. The steam produced powers the turbines. The steam is cooled and condenses into water, where it is pumped back into the ground through the injection well.binary cycle power plantsthe main difference is that the water or steam from below the earth never comes in direct contact with the turbines. Instead, water from geothermal reservoirs is pumped through a heat exchanger where it heats a second liquid—like isobutene (which boils at a lower temperature than water.)binary cycle power plantsThis second liquid is heated into steam, which powers the turbines that drives a generator. The hot water from the earth is recycled into the earth through the injection well, and the second liquid is recycled through the turbine and back into the heat exchanger where it can be used again.Closed loop systemsPowering your home with a geothermal heat pump allows you to harness the temperatures below the surface of the earth to heat or cool a structureClosed loop systemsEven though the temperatures above ground fluctuate during the seasons throughout the years, the temperature below the surface remains consistent between 50 ̊F - 60 ̊F (10 ̊C - 16 ̊C) year roundopen loop systemsthe water is taken directly from a water source and into the heat pump where it then can either be recycled back into the same source or pumped into another water source (without polluting).open loop systemsThe only difference with the water going in and out is a slight change in temperature. Although these can be cheaper, they also require a steady flow of water capable of powering your home.Drying Agricultural Crops using Geothermal EnergyApplicationsReliable source of energy Small land footprint usable for large and small-scale installationsPROS GeothermalLocation dependent High initial costs surface instabilityCONS GeothermalSolar Power EnergyThe electrical energy generated from the solar energyactive solar passive solarsolar technologies are classified into two typesPassive Solar EnergyThe solar energy used directly for heating water in swimming pools, day lightning, drying up clothes, and so on, without any intermediate devices or convertersActive Solar EnergyThe solar energy which is indirectly used for providing power supply to power consuming devices after processing through the intermediate devices such as solar panels or photovoltaic cells for converting solar energy into electrical energySolar Power Energy Conversion ProcessThe solar energy is converted into electrical energy called as Solar Power Energy, and this conversion process takes place by using solar panels, charge controller, battery and inverter.Crop and Grain Drying Solar-Thermal Conversion PhotovoltaicsCommon Agricultural Application Solar powerSolar to Thermal ConversionSolar Radiation is converted to heat for heating or cooling spaces and dwellings or the heat can be further transformed to electricity using solar thermal power plantsSolar to Thermal ConversionUse of solar collectorssolar collectorsa heat exchanger that absorbs the incoming solar radiation, converts it into heat, and transfers the heat to a fluid (e.g. air, water or oil)Use of solar collectors Use of solar collectors Irrigation Systems Solar Tractor Solar Incubator (Paras, 2007)APPLICATIONS PV SYSTEMSRenewable and pollution free reduce electricity bill less to no maintenance for years more solar energy in summer diverse application can be stored in batterySolar Energy PROSneeds lot of space high initial cost no solar power at night and cloudy days less solar energy in winter dc equipment are expensive expensive batterySolar Energy CONSHydro powerpower that can be generated from the movement of masses of waterHydro powermovement in the form of kinetic energy can be converted into mechanical energy which can then be used to drive agricultural and industrial equipmentHydro powerpower can be converted further to electricity by using electric generators to drive variety of machines and equipment having a wide range of power requirements1. Falling or flowing of streams of water through the force of gravity 2. Rise and fall of tides through lunar and/or solar gravityTwo Types of Water Mass MovementBased on Power Plant Capacity Micro power plant (<5 MW) Medium capacity plant ( 5 MW to 100 MW) High capacity plant ( 100 MW to 1000 MW) Super power plant (>1000 MW)Hydro Power Plant CategoriesHigh Head HPP h>50m Medium Head HPP 15m<h<50m Low Head HPP h<15mHydro Power Plant Categories: Based on Power Plant HeadDIVERSION TYPE RUN-OF-RIVER TYPEHydro Power Plant Categories: Based on Plant LayoutWater Wheels Plata Pump HYDRAULIC RAMHydro Power Generating DevicesWater Wheelsgenerally rotate in a vertical planeWater Wheelsno changes in water pressure occurs across the vanes of the undershot wheel or the bucket of the overshot and breast wheelWater Wheelsusually used to drive agricultural equipment like threshers, pumps, grinders and millsPlata PumpAn unconventional alternative to a small water wheel for powering a small pumpHYDRAULIC RAMuses the kinetic energy of water flow in a pipe to elevate parts of the water to a height greater than that causing the flowRenewable source of energy pairs well with other renewables can meet peak electricity demandHydropower PROSsome adverse environmental impact expensive upfront lack of available reservoirsHydropower CONSWindmotion of air caused by the uneven heating of the earth's surface by the sun and the rotation of the earth (Coriolis' effect)Winddefined by its direction and its speedWind ProfileGenerally follows a logarithmic behavior with height Largely affected by surface roughnessWind Powerconversion of wind energy into more useful forms using wind turbinesWind Powerplentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, and reduces toxic atmospheric and greenhouse gas emissionsWind PowerMay be used for mechanical and electrical applicationsWind MachinesWind MachinesDRAG TYPE LIFT TYPECategories of Wind MachinesDRAG TYPEdepend on surface drag forces not very efficient because their rotors cannot achieve velocities greater than the wind speedLIFT TYPEuse the aerodynamic lift produced by the wind flow over the lifting surfaces to propel the rotors lifting surfaces must be placed at an appropriate angle to the wind streamHIGH SPEED TURBINES LOW SPEED TURBINESClassification of Wind Machines (According to shaft rotational speed)HIGH SPEED TURBINESfew bladed windmills (four or less) can develop a speed of more than 300 rpm torque developed is small hence referred as "low-torque windmill" practical for electric generation not suitable for deep-well water pumpingLOW SPEED TURBINESmulti-bladed windmills rotational speed is not more than several hundred rpm develops high torque suited for water pumping not fit for electric generationHORIZONTAL AXIS TURBINES VERTICAL AXIS TURBINESClassification of Wind Machines (According to shaft orientationHORIZONTAL AXIS TURBINESrotor axis of rotation is in line with the prevailing wind direction uses vane for orienting the mill towards the prevailing wind direction also called "directional windmill type"VERTICAL AXIS TURBINESshaft rotation is along the vertical axis perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction non-directional due to absence of vane accept wind from any direction power is available even in ground levelGRAIN MILLING ELECTRICITY GENERATION WATER PUMPING BATTERY CHARGINGWind power applicationshigh initial investments thread for birds wind strength - electricity not constantwind power consfree, renewable, non-polluting minimal operating cost no fuel needed shortest payback timewind power prosfinancial risk - not enough energy from wind to replace traditional resources lifetime of turbines is 20 yrs hard to estimate wind powerwind power risks