centromere, mitosis, cytokinesis, meiosis, mitotic phase, interphase, centrosome, aster, kinetochore, cleavage furrow, cell plate, mitotic spindle, binary fission, transformation, benign tumor, malignant tumor, metastasis
After attending lectures and studying the chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Define gene as it relates to the genetic material in a cell.
2. Describe the composition of the genetic material in bacteria, in archaea, and in eukaryotic cells.
3. State the location of the genetic material in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
4. Distinguish between the structure of the genetic material as chromatin and as
5. Distinguish between the function of the genetic material as chromatin and as
6. Relating to eukaryotic cells:
a. Describe the centromere region in the genetic material.
b. State the role of cohesins in duplicated genetic material.
c. Describe the sister chromatids of a duplicated chromosome.
d. State the role of the kinetochores on the chromatids at the centromere of a duplicated
e. Describe spindle fibers and state their role in the separation of chromosomes during eukaryotic cell division.
f. Describe the role of centrosomes in the formation of the spindle apparatus.
g. Distinguish between a gene and an allele.
h. Describe homologous chromosomes.
i. Distinguish between an individual's genome and karyotype.
j. State the number of chromosomes in human haploid cells and in human diploid cells.
k. State which cells in humans are haploid, which cells are diploid, and which cells are neither.
7. State the two major parts of the cell cycle.
8. Describe the differences of growth characteristics between a cancerous (transformed) cell and a normal cell.
8. Relating to the prokaryotic cell cycle:
a. State the number of chromosomes in a prokaryotic cell.
b. State the cellular activities that occur during interphase.
c. Show the process of binary fission that is prokaryotic cell division.
9. Relating to the eukaryotic cell cycle:
a. Distinguish between interphase and cell division.
b. Distinguish between the G1, S, and G2 phases of interphase.
c. Define karyokinesis and cytokinesis.
d. State the two types of karyokinesis.
e. Distinguish between the M and C phases of cell division.
f. State when in the cell cycle duplication of the genetic material occurs.
10. Relating to cell division involving mitosis (mitosis + cytokinesis):
a. Define mitosis.
b. Explain why mitosis is sometimes considered "duplication division".
c. State what 1 human diploid cell becomes after mitosis plus cytokinesis.
d. State the reason humans undergo cell division involving mitosis.
e. State which cells in humans undergo cell division involving mitosis.
f. Be able to describe, draw, and recognize the 4 stages of mitosis.
g. Describe the cleavage-furrow process of cytokinesis in animal cells.
h. Describe the cell-plate process of cytokinesis in plant cells.