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DNA polymerase makes an error, the base sequence changes, the protein coded by the sequence may be different
Biological species concept
the definition of a species as a population or group of populations that are reproductively isolated from other groups
disadvantages of biological species concept
what about species that reproduce asexually? it can only be applied to populations that overlap geographically
offsprings of matings between members of different species do not survive or reproduce
distinguishing features are most likely to arise if populations are independent and isolated from gene flow
document the evolutionary relationships among organisms and are estimated from data
environmental catastrophes that rapidly eliminate species and have occurred repeatedly throughout the history of time
identify synapomorphies, shared derived traits...closely related taxa should share the most
average rate of extinction caused by gradual change, competition, new diseases
End-Permian extinction hypothesized causes
intense global warming, oceans became anoxic, sea level dropped dramatically, low O2 and high CO2 levels in the atmosphere
unique prokaryotic adaptations
diverse metabolic pathways, cell walls, surface adaptations, membrane folding, reproductive strategies
The diversification of a group of organisms into forms filling different ecological niches
diverse morphology, some are multicellular, use every metabolic pathway except oxygenic photosynthesis, E. coli is a member, became mitochondria
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