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What is 1 + 3?
an intimate and protracted association between 2 or more organisms of different species
when the association involves one of the organisms living within the other
when both benefit (++)
when one benefit the other is neutral (+0)
When one benefits, the other is negatively impacted (+-)
Animals that move pollen from one flower to another
Animals that disperse seeds away from the parent plant
parasites that kill their host
very small short generation times
relatively large usually an external stage
Ticks, leaches, fungi
Live outside host body
live inside hosts body
feed off one or 2-3 closely related specices
Feed off multiple species
Parasites effect on host
2. Abnormal growth
imposing the care of eggs or young onto surrogate parents.
Forcible theft of prey by the parasite from the host
Number of organisms per unit of area