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a composition for orchestra and a soloist

concerto grosso

a baroque composition for orchestra and a group of solo instruments


the orchestral material at the beginning of a concerto gross which always returns later in the piece

variation form

a form in which a single melodic unit is repeated with harmonic, rhythmic, dyanamic, or timbral changes


a musical form consisting of a theme repeated a fifth above or a fourth below its first statement


things written


a stately court dance in the 17th-18th century


third in position


A vocal solo in opera, cantats, and oratorios that declaims the text in a sung-speech manner, in free rhythm with minimal accompainment.


a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text


a musical form involving the simultaneous sound of two or more melodies


section of music that comes between the first theme and the second group and makes the transition


having three units or components or elements; ABA

chamber music

serious music performed by a small group of musicians


German composer of instrumental music (especially symphonic and chamber music)

basso ostinato

a motive or phrase in the bass that is repeated again and again


the term for the principle theme of a fugue


introduction; introductory performance or event; forerunner


Stately Spanish Baroque dance type in triple meter, a standard movement of the Baroque suite

opera seria

Italian serious opera


a self-contained composition for solo voice, usually with instrumental accompaniment and usually found within the context of an opera, oratorio or cantata


deliberately arranged for effect

the classical orchestra

Size increases, standard group of 4 sections (strings, woodwinds in pairs- clarinet is new. Brass: pairs of horns, trumpets. Percussion: 2 timpani.) Note: trombones used in opera/church music. Composers expploited individual tone colors. Role of each section (strings most important; 1st violins with melody. Woodwinds add contrasting timbre; melodic solos. Brass adds power. Timpani for rhythmic bite and emphasis.


the process of expanding themes and short motives into larger sections of music


Instrumental genre in several movements for soloist or small ensemble.


a musical numbering in an opera, cantina, or oratorio that is sung by two or more people


prolific Austrian composer and child prodigy


a self-contained section of a larger pier, such as a symphony or concerto grosso

ground bass

an ostinato in the bass

fugal exposition

the opening section of a fugue, in which all the voices enter with the main subject.


especially in baroque music,a written-out composition in improvisational style, generally for organ or harpsichord

dance suite

a collection of instrumental dances, each with its own distinctive rhythm and character

opera buffa

Comic opera

da capo

from the beginning

church cantata

a cantata with religious words


a large orchestral piece in several movements


a section of a musical composition or movement in which themes introduced earlier are repeated


light or playful part of a sonata or symphony


Motivic composer. Influenced the classical form of the symphony and string quartets as major instrumental forms. Taught Beethoven. (1732-1809)


a brilliant solo passage occuring near the end of a piece of music


a brief section of a literary or dramatic work that forms part of a connected series


the notes of a chord played in succession to one another, rather than simultaneously; a broken chord


lively Baroque dance in compound meter


text of an opera


artificial male sopranos


Originally a hymn tune of the German Lutehran Church sung by the congregation in unison and in German.

sonata exposition

a section w/two contrasting themes first and second; ends in key of dominant


the closing section of a musical composition

string quartet

an instrumental quartet with 2 violins and a viola and a cello


the technique of reducing a theme to fragmentary motives

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