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50 terms

Intro to Music Test 2

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concerto
a composition for orchestra and a soloist
concerto grosso
a baroque composition for orchestra and a group of solo instruments
ritornello
the orchestral material at the beginning of a concerto gross which always returns later in the piece
variation form
a form in which a single melodic unit is repeated with harmonic, rhythmic, dyanamic, or timbral changes
fugue
a musical form consisting of a theme repeated a fifth above or a fourth below its first statement
entries
things written
minuet
a stately court dance in the 17th-18th century
tertiary
third in position
recitative
A vocal solo in opera, cantats, and oratorios that declaims the text in a sung-speech manner, in free rhythm with minimal accompainment.
oratorio
a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text
counterpoint
a musical form involving the simultaneous sound of two or more melodies
bridge
section of music that comes between the first theme and the second group and makes the transition
ternary
having three units or components or elements; ABA
chamber music
serious music performed by a small group of musicians
Beethoven
German composer of instrumental music (especially symphonic and chamber music)
basso ostinato
a motive or phrase in the bass that is repeated again and again
subject
the term for the principle theme of a fugue
prelude
introduction; introductory performance or event; forerunner
sarabande
Stately Spanish Baroque dance type in triple meter, a standard movement of the Baroque suite
opera seria
Italian serious opera
aria
a self-contained composition for solo voice, usually with instrumental accompaniment and usually found within the context of an opera, oratorio or cantata
staged
deliberately arranged for effect
the classical orchestra
Size increases, standard group of 4 sections (strings, woodwinds in pairs- clarinet is new. Brass: pairs of horns, trumpets. Percussion: 2 timpani.) Note: trombones used in opera/church music. Composers expploited individual tone colors. Role of each section (strings most important; 1st violins with melody. Woodwinds add contrasting timbre; melodic solos. Brass adds power. Timpani for rhythmic bite and emphasis.
development
the process of expanding themes and short motives into larger sections of music
sonata
Instrumental genre in several movements for soloist or small ensemble.
ensemble
a musical numbering in an opera, cantina, or oratorio that is sung by two or more people
Mozart
prolific Austrian composer and child prodigy
movement
a self-contained section of a larger pier, such as a symphony or concerto grosso
ground bass
an ostinato in the bass
fugal exposition
the opening section of a fugue, in which all the voices enter with the main subject.
toccata
especially in baroque music,a written-out composition in improvisational style, generally for organ or harpsichord
dance suite
a collection of instrumental dances, each with its own distinctive rhythm and character
opera buffa
Comic opera
da capo
from the beginning
church cantata
a cantata with religious words
symphony
a large orchestral piece in several movements
recapitulation
a section of a musical composition or movement in which themes introduced earlier are repeated
scherzo
light or playful part of a sonata or symphony
Haydn
Motivic composer. Influenced the classical form of the symphony and string quartets as major instrumental forms. Taught Beethoven. (1732-1809)
cadenza
a brilliant solo passage occuring near the end of a piece of music
episode
a brief section of a literary or dramatic work that forms part of a connected series
arpeggio
the notes of a chord played in succession to one another, rather than simultaneously; a broken chord
gigue
lively Baroque dance in compound meter
libertto
text of an opera
castrati
artificial male sopranos
chorale
Originally a hymn tune of the German Lutehran Church sung by the congregation in unison and in German.
sonata exposition
a section w/two contrasting themes first and second; ends in key of dominant
coda
the closing section of a musical composition
string quartet
an instrumental quartet with 2 violins and a viola and a cello
fragmentation
the technique of reducing a theme to fragmentary motives