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Terms in this set (34)

1. Results/Productivity (most important measure of success)
Did the team achieve its goal? - Clear goal and able to adjust goal when new information is available
Does teams' output meet the standards of those who have to use it? - Output must meet standards of those who use it, does not matter if team is happy with results, the user must be happy also.
There are many dimensions to productivity: What was the team's output? How quickly results were achieved? How effective the outcome? etc.
Productivity of a team is highly correlated with its goals, as well as the ability of the team to adapt to the goals in face of new info, changing organizational priorities, and changing marketplace
2. Cohesion
Do the team members enjoy working together? - may be able to complete tasks, but inability to work together results in poor performance
Is the team better able to work together as a result of this experience? - Effectively functioning teams are able to maintain and strengthen their relationship
Positively related to task performance
3. Learning
Do team members have the opportunity to develop themselves? - Teams should represent growth and development opportunities for individual members
Try new roles and skills? - Teams should be sensitive to members and provide opportunities for members to develop new skills
Successful organizations create opportunities that challenge individual members. Although teams are not made to serve individual needs, successful orgs create opportunities that challenge individual members → don't become so self-serving that the organization loses sight of its larger goals
4. Integration
Does the team benefit the larger organization? Need to have goals that coincide with the organization
Need to integrate with other units in organization, must disseminate information, results, status reports, failures, expertise, and ideas in a timely and efficient manner.
It is important for teams to understand the organization's goals to work effectively towards them.
Achieving integration requires solid planning and coordination with the rest of the company.
1. Knowledge and Skill
a. Cognitive/Intellectual - Must have expertise in field and know how to do tasks
b. Task-Specific - Experience with the tasks and process
c. Interpersonal - Subordinates reporting "good relationships"with their superiors are better performers
d. Organizational/Decision-making - Strategic thinking: awareness of integration
Threats:
a. Slow learning curves
Learning Curves:
The presence of other people enhances performance for well-learned behaviors
b. Lack of expertise
Expertise:
- Presence of other people triggers one of two responses: challenge (if someone is an expert) or threat (if someone is not an expert)
- Choking under pressure - Person's performance declines despite incentives for optimal performance

2. Effort and Motivation
a. Motivational gains - Circumstances that increase the effort expanded by group members in a collective task
b. Kohler effect - The less capable member works harder (social comparison, and the feeling that one's effort is indispensable to the group)
Threats:
- Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
- Social loafing - Addition of new members have diminishing returns on productivity (People in groups often do not work as hard as they do when alone)
- Free Riders - Benefit from the work performed by others, while contributing little to nothing.
Causes:
- Diffusion of responsibility - Deindividuation: people do not feel individual responsibility a psychological state in which a person does not feel individual responsibility → likely to perform and contribute less
- Dispensability of effort - Contribution will not be sufficient to justify the effort, contribution not as worthwhile or valuable.
reduced sense of self-efficacy: The feeling that our contributions will not be as valuable, efficacious, or worthwhile as they might be in a smaller group

3. Coordination
Combined synchronization of the activities of all members.
Threats:
- Communication problems
Language - Direct: Saying what you mean. Indirect: Hinting around, being passive aggressive.
Assumptions -
- Minimizing coordination loss
1) Incentive Pay: base pay is how companies determine an individual's base salary. integration of internal equity and external equity. variable pay is incentive pay. *cutthroat cooperation effect refers to fact that it is more difficult for teams to move from competitive to cooperative reward structures than vice versa. (they normally performed worse too). for ex: bonus pool for members of a team or two reward systems, one provides bonuses to teams based on performance, second to individuals based on how well they have performed.
-incentives may also create unintended behavior. use of team-based rewards may also create potential for motivational loss (social loafing). team rewards may also not foster cooperation in teams. they may foster competition leading to sub optimization of goals

2) Recognition: Define: One time award for a limited number of employees or groups for well beyond expectations or for completing a project, program, or product.
Advantages: easy to implement, distributed at the local level, introduced easily, inexpensive, comparatively simple
Disadvantages: employees concerned they won't be recognized for own contributions, risky if base pay is reduced, carry less front end motivation.
-cash and noncash: spot awards can be either cash or noncash. nearly 86% of organizations used recognition programs as part of their rewards toolkit. sometimes rewards from managers can be taken the wrong way so many believe teams should be given role in distributing recognition awards (self-managing teams; autonomy).

3) Profit sharing Define: a share of corporate profits is distributed in cash on a current basis to all employees (driven by financial factors)
Advantages: served communication purpose by signaling that rewards are in balance across the organization.
Disadvantages: may be too removed from workers control to affect performance.

4) Gain Sharing
define: a percentage of the value of increased productivity is given to workers under a prearranged formula (driven by operational factor [eg. quality, productivity, customer satisfaction]
advantages: geared toward production oriented workers, add-on compensation, so easily accepted by employees.
disadvantages: may be too far removed from worker's control to affect performance.
Definition: Occurs when team members place consensus above all other priorities- including using good judgement- when the consensus reflects poor judgment or improper or immoral actions.

Example (right):
> Manage by monitoring team size: People grow more intimidated and hesitant as team size increases. So, make sure to not let the group size to be too big. Usually teams with more than 10 members may feel less personal responsibility for team outcomes.
> Risk technique: Structured discussion designed to reduce group members' fears about making decisions. For example, have a facilitator play the role of a devil's advocate for a particular decision.
> Appoint a Devil's advocate: Winston Churchill knew how to combat group think and yes-men by instituting a unit outside his chain of command, called the "statistical office" whose key job was to bring him the bleakest, most gut-wretching facts.
> Second Solution: Requires teams to identify a second solution or decision recommendation as an alternative to their first choice. This enhances the problem-solving and idea-generation phases, as well as performance quality.


Example (wrong):
> Not Inviting different perspectives: Inviting different perspectives is when team members assume the perspective of other constituencies with a stake in the decision. A bad example is when in 1986, the space shuttle Challenger exploded after lift off due to a major malfunction. An engineer tried to halt the flight because he knew there could be trouble. But, he was largely ignored because the management refused to discuss the facts and would just not respond verbally to him. He eventually felt helpless and stopped pressing his cost.
> Time Pressure: Time pressure leads to more risky decision making. Time pressure acts as a stressor on teams and stress impairs the effectiveness of team decision making. Moral principles are more likely to guide decisions for the distant future than for the immediate future, whereas difficulty, cost, and situational pressures are more likely to be important in near-future decisions.
Define:results from group members desire to avoid conflict and reach consensus at all costs. The abilene process is a form of pluralistic ignorance: where group members adopt a position because they feel other members desire it; team members don't challenge one another because they want to avoid conflict or achieve consensus.

Example (right):
> Confront the issue in a team setting: Meet with organization members who are in positions of power with regard to the decision and to discuss options as well as options to opt out.
> Conduct a private vote: Distribute blank cards and ask team members to privately write their opinions. Guarantee them anonymity and then share overall outcomes with the team.
> Minimize status differences: High-status members are often at the center of communication, and lower-status members are likely to feel pressures to conform more quickly. Reassurances by senior members about importance of frank and honest discussion reinforced by the elimination of status symbols, like dress, meeting place, and title, may be helpful.
> Utilize scientific method: Let evidence make the decision, not own beliefs.

Example (wrong)
> Self-Limiting Behaviors: continue participating in behaviors which include team members feeling intimidated or that their efforts will not be worthwhile
Causes of these behaviors:
- Presence of an expert: people will self-limit their input if they feel like one of their members is an expert in the topic
- Strong Arguments: If a lot of time has been spent in discussion and idea fatigue is occurring, members who presents a good solution even if it is not optimal, may find agreements b/c group wants to move on
- Lack of self-confidence: self-limit id unsure about their contributions
- Trivial Decision: When group members don't see how the decision impacts themselves or something important
Conformity:
Faulty Decision-Making Climate: when team members are easily frustrated and believe that others are dispassionate, involved, or apathetic, they are likely to self-limit
-Cognitive-Goal Instructions: focus on how to change the mindset and accompanying cognitions of team members
-Set High-Quantity Goals: providing brainstormers with high performance standards greatly increases the number of ideas generated.
-Competition: people working on task perform better when they're paired with partner who is better
-Focus on Categories: helpful to focus on same component categories at the same time.
Paradoxical Frames: mental templates that encourage people to recognize and embrace contradictions are more creative than those who don't use frames
-Explicit Set of Rules: Paulus has four additional brainstorming rules:
-Stay focused on task
-Do not tell stories of explain ideas
-When no one is suggesting ideas, restate the problem and encourage each other to generate ideas
-Encourage those who are not talking to make a contribution
-Increase Individual Accountability: team members who feel individually accountable for their ideas are more productive than teams in which it is not possible to discern who contributed what.
-Energizing States: energizing moods increase creativity
-Analogical Reasoning: the act of applying one concept or idea from a particular domain to another domain. New ideas are often old ideas wrapped in new clothing; finding innovative solutions by analogy requires 1) in-depth understanding of problem and 2) searching for something else that ahs already solved the problem
Analogical reasoning involves application of diverse categories to a company's present problem or challenge.
-knowledge brokering: Hargadon calls this the use of analogy in companies and notes that the best innovators use old ideas as raw materials from new ideas.
Hargadon and Sutton outline 4 critical steps in knowledge of brokering cycle:
1) capturing good ideas, 2) keeping ideas alive, 3) impinging new uses for old ideas, 4) putting promising concepts to the test
Clique network - network (or communication) structure of a manager who has a network of relatively close colleagues - most likely from the same functional unit. It is reminiscent of the traditional family unit. In this network, groups of people, all of whom who know one another quite well, share largely redundant communication structures. At the extreme, members of clique networks are only aware of others with whom they have direct contact. This type of network is tightly constructed and dense. Members of clique networks consider one another to be their closest contacts and because they focus their efforts at primarily internal communications, they are often sequestered from the larger organization. The loyalty and cohesiveness of inner circles can be both comforting to those situated securely in them and intimidating to those who stumble into them without a real ally. This is a highly cohesive group, which can be advantageous when it comes to managing the internal team environment. Another positive is that there is increased efficiency of decision making. A con is that because members don't have access to different social networks that are independent of their individual knowledge and skills. They may also experience redundant communication, biased communication, groupthink, and dispensable members.

Boundary spanning networks - Individuals and teams who span organizational divides and integrate the knowledge of best practices from different areas of the organizations who otherwise have little incentive to do so are extremely valuable for the organization. This type of network is much less dense, more unique, and more varied. These people, known as boundary spanners, bridge the functional gaps (structural holes) that exist in organization. Structural holes separate nonredundant social contacts in the organization network: bringing in people, knowledge, and information that would not otherwise be connected. Managers who are boundary spanners are more likely to have earlier promotions and higher salaries. This is critical for maximizing diversity of ideas and setting the stage for creative thinking in the organization. Cons include greater conflict, both task and relationship, and also power struggles.
1) Insulating teams - team is isolated from other parts of organization or its customers; team concentrates solely on internal functioning and is usually highly goal driven. This may be the nature of the team because of security reasons or intellectual reasons. Advantages include less likely to compromise ideals and objectives and especially conducive for creative teams. Disadvantages include disconnection from rest of organization and may develop groupthink or over confidence

2) Broadcasting teams - Broadcasting teams concentrate on their internal processes and simply inform others what they are doing. The broadcasting team has little outside contact and make decisions about how to serve its customers from within. The team members let others outside the team know what they are doing after they have already made decisions. Advantages include control over negative information and broadcasting is relatively inexpensive. Disadvantages include that these teams may fail to sense true needs of customers and may fail to develop customer support.

3) Marketing teams - Marketing teams promote their objectives, products, services, and culture actively within their organization. They concentrates on diagnosing needs of customers, experimenting with solutions, reising their knowledge, initiating programs and collecting data. Their objective is to garner support from organizational authorities and receive recognition. They differ from broadcasting teams in that they actively tailor their communication to suit the needs, interests, and objectives of the organization. Advantages - greatest potential customer satisfaction, understand outsiders' demands, rated by outsiders as high performers. Disadvantages often extremely costly and time consuming and may surface latent conflict within the organization; possible low cohesion due to divergent views created by surveying

4) X-teams - Highly externally oriented and their members reach out across the organization to forge dense networks. They enable rapid execution using a three-phase process: exploration, exploitation and exportation. During exploration, X-team members try to understand their task from a novel vantage point, generating as many insights and ideas as possible. During exploitation, X-teams settle upon one product they wish to create, using rapid prototyping to move from possibilities to relaties. During exportation, they find ways to move their product and their knowledge into the broader organization and market. Advantages - rapid execution and prototyping. Disadvantages - need top mgmt support, setting appropriate milestones so that exploitation does not dwarf exploration.

5) Surveying Teams: Team concentrates on diagnosing needs of customers, experimenting with solutions, revising their knowledge, initiating programs, and collecting data. Advantages include greater potential customer satisfaction, understand outsiders' demands, rated by outsiders as higher performers. Disadvantages include extremely costly and time consuming, may surface latent conflict within the organization, possible low cohesion (due to divergent views created by surveying) and possible dissatisfaction.