Environmental Chapter 14
Terms in this set (73)
Water that flows over land and has not been absorbed by the ground.
Water that is pure with few dissolved salts. Relatively pure water.
Water found on Earth's surface.
A network of connected streams and rivers. Water moves downhill according to gravity, forming a network of connected streams and rivers.
Includes all of the land area that supplies water to a particular river system
Water found below Earth's surface
Layers containing spaces, or pores, through which water can pass.
Layers with few or no pores.
A sponge like formation of rock, sand or gravel that holds water
Zone of Aeration
An aquifer's upper layer, contains pores through which water can flow
Zone of Saturation
The lower layer of an aquifer, these spaces are completely filled with water.
The boundary between the zones in aquifers
Any area where surface water soaks into the ground and reaches an aquifer below.
A hole dug into an aquifer to reach groundwater.
Uses inside a home.
The process of moving water from its source to places where humans use it.
Any obstruction placed in a river or stream to block its flow.
An artificial large lake that stores water for human use.
Is the buildup of salts in the surface layers of soil.
Withdrawing groundwater faster than it can be replaced.
Another strategy to "make" more freshwater by removing salt from seawater.
A practice that requires much less water to maintain landscaping.
Comes from distinct locations, such as a factory or sewer pipe.
Comes from many places spread over a large area.
Bodies of water have a high nutrient content and a low oxygen content
What does eutrophic mean in the Greek language?
The pollution of a body of water as a result of many human activities.
Water that has been used by people in some way.
The rapid growth of algae in an area that can cover the surface of the water and block sunlight from reaching plants below.
Disease causing organisms
When a disease-causing organism and virus make their way into our air, soil, and water.
Nickname for a type of algal bloom. A harmful algal bloom caused bu algae that produce reddish pigments.
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act
Single most important law to prevent water pollution in the United States.
The Clean Water Act
Made it illegal to release pollution from a point source without a permit.
Treated water that is piped into rivers, reservoirs, or the ocean flowing primarily, secondary, and tertilary treatment.
Water that is not released to a body of surface water.
The most popular method of waste water disposal.
Periodically, solid waste is pumped from the septic tank and taken to a land fill or dried and sold as fertilizer.
What is the fraction of the people in the world that lack access to fresh water?
Benefits of Cycling water
Redistributes heat, erodes mountain ranges, builds river deltas, maintains organisms and ecosystems, and shapes civilizations.
What is the percentage of water on Earth that is fresh water?
What is the percentage of water on Earth that is salt water?
What percentage of freshwater on Earth is found in surface water?
What percentage of freshwater on Earth is found in groundwater?
What percentage of freshwater on Earth is found in ice?
Where is most of the salt water on Earth found?
Every water way defines what?
Includes all of the land area that supplies water to a river system
Includes still bodies of water and river systems.
Hot springs with constrictions near the surface. As heat builds up, it periodically ejects a column of hot water and steam.
Agriculture, Industrial, and Personal
What are the 3 main uses of freshwater?
What is the amount of fresh water the average American uses a day for personal uses?
Where is most of the freshwater that is being used in the U.S. found?
Drought and overuse
What causes significant surface water depletion?
What was once the 4th largest body of freshwater?
What is 68% of the groundwater in the U.S. used for?
Turns groundwater into a nonrenewable resource b/c it is withdrawn from the ground faster than it can be replaced.
This causes falling water tables.
falling water tables
As a result of this happening it will cause cities to sink, and undrinkable salt water to move into the depleted aquifers.
A solution to fresh water depletion that increases the supply of freshwater.
Agricultural, industrial, personal
Decreases the demand to freshwater depletion.
What is the number of children that die everyday from disease associated with unsafe drinking water?
Can flow into standing, or still bodies of surface water such as lakes, and ponds, or it can join up with a river system.
Contained within watersheds
Another name for watersheds because they drain into a river system the way that rain water drains into street or house gutters.
Process of Eutrophication
Step 1.) nutrients build up in water.
Step 2.) Algae and aquatic plant growth increases.
Step 3.) Organisms die. Decomposition requires oxygen.
Step 4.) Dissolved oxygen levels decrease.
Excess phosphorus and other nutrients in the water. can cause cultural eutrophication
Unusually large amounts of sediment that change an aquatic environment. Results from erosion. Can degrade water quality, cause photosynthesis rates to decline, and disrupt food webs.
A heat source that raises the temperatures of a waterway.
What type of pollution causes more human health problems than any other form of waste water pollution.
What reduces biological pollution?
All American Canal
The worlds largest irrigation canal