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body scheme

definition: awareness of body parts, position of body and its parts in relation to themselves and objects in the environment
functional deficit: may result in dressing apraxia; may not recognize body parts or relationship between them; transfers may be unsafe

right/left discrimination

definition: ability to understand the concepts of right and left; with RBD deficit may be caused by a visuospatial deficit; with LBD and aphasia deficit caused by language deficit; with LBD and no aphasia deficit caused by general mental impairment
functional deficit: may have difficulty dressing and understanding directions that include right and left.

body part identification

definition: ability to identify parts on self and/or others
functional deficit: may respond incorrectly when told to move a specific body part.

finger agnosia

definition: difficulty naming or being able to name fingers touched
functional deficit: may have difficulty with fine dexterity


definition: unawareness or denial of deficits
functional deficit: functional activities are unsafe; unable to learn compensatory techniques

unilateral neglect

definition: neglect of one side of the body or extrapersonal space; motor neglect seen by impaired initiation into contralateral hemispace; perceptual seen by impaired ability to attend to stimuli in contralateral hemispace
functional deficit: shaves only one side of face, dresses only one side of his body; eats food from oly half of his plate; reads only half of a page; deletes only half of a drawing; fransfers and functional mobility are unsafe; bumps into door jambs and objects on one side.

position in space

definition: able to understand the concepts of over and under, above, and below, etc
functional deficit: difficulty moving through a crowded area; difficulty with dressing; difficulty folowing directions using these terms

spatial relations

definition: ability to perceive self in relation to other objects
functional deficit: same as position in space, trasfers unsafe

topographical orientation

definition: ability to find one's way from one place to another
functional deficit: difficulty finding his way from his room to therapy or from one room to another

figure - ground perception

definition: ability to distinguish foreground from background
functional deficit: unable to find object in cluttered drawer, white washcloth on white sheet, brakes on wheelchair, food in the refrigerator

limb apraxia

definition: inability to carry out purposeful movement in the presence of intact sensation, movement, and coordination
fuctional deficit: may experience difficulty with functional tasks involving objects, as patient does not know how to use objects or attempts to use wrong object (ex use knife to eat soup); may be clunsy and have trouble with writing, knitting, etc.

constructional apraxia

definition: deficit in constructional activities: graphic and assembly; with RBD drawings are comples but exhibit disorganized spatial relations and poor orientation in space; with LBD drawings tend to be simplified with few details
functional deficit: may result in dressing apraxia; difficulty setting a table, making a dress, wrapping a gift, arranging numerical figures for mathematical processing, making a sandwich, assembling a craft project from a kit, etc.

dressing apraxia

definition: inability to dress oneslf
functional deficit: attempts to put clothes on inside out, backwards, or in the wrong order; dresses only one-half of the body


definition: ability to focus on a specific stimulus without being distracted
functiona deficit: exhibits inability to follow directions or to learn; may appear lethargic; may have difficulty in group situations


definition: oriented to person, place, time
functional deficit: unable to answer orientation questions; may ask simple questions over and over; may be easily agitated due to disorientation


definition: the registration and encoding, consolidation and storage, and recall and retrieval of information
functional deficit: appears disoriented; wil forget names, schedule, etc.; decreased ability to learn or to follow directions

problem solving

definition: the ability to manipulate a fund of knowledge and apply this information to new or unfamiliar situations
functional deficit: difficulty with routine self-care and household chores, e.g., routine shopping, planning a meal, etc.; may be socially inappropriate; exhibit poor judgment; difficulty ordering or sequencing information, e.g., time, work, etc.

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