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From the Revolutionary Period to the Age of Jackson.

Treaty of Paris, 1763

End of the French and Indian War; Encouraged nationalism - brought Americans closer together and farther away from England. Took a lot of land from France.

Proclamation Line

Created a boundary line (often called the proclamation line) between the British colonies on the Atlantic coast and American Indian lands (called the Indian Reserve) west of the Appalachian Mountains. Pissed off the settlers.

Virtual Representation

British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members

Sugar Act

Law passed in 1764 that modified the 1733 Molasses Act thus reducing the amount of taxes collected on molasses and sugar, but increasing the measures to enforce the Act.

Revenue Act

1935 - Increased income taxes on higher incomes and also increased inheritance, large gft, and capital gains taxes.

Currency Act

an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 4 Geo. III c. 34) which prohibited the American colonies from issuing paper currency of any form. Additionally, Britain had coined almost no silver or copper between 1760 and 1816 and discouraged any American attempts to do so. The colonies were continuously running trade deficits with Britain and shipping gold and silver to Britain was the only way to balance the excess of imports over exports

Stamp Act

A means of raising revenue in the colonies, and was passed by Parliament. It stated that all legal documents, contracts, licenses, pamphlets, and newspapers must carry a stamp that is taxed. It angered the colonists greatly, and led to the creation of the Stamp Act Congress.

Sons of Liberty

A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.

Non-Importation Movement

A tactical means of putting economic pressure on Britian by refusing to buy its exports to the colonies to protest the Stamp Act.

1767 Townshend Acts

The English Parliament passes the Townshend Revenue Acts, imposing a new series of taxes on the colonists to offset the costs of administering and protecting the American colonies. Items taxed include imports such as paper, tea, glass, lead and paints. The Act also establishes a colonial board of customs commissioners in Boston. In October, Bostonians decide to reinstate a boycott of English luxury items. Americans worried that this would make Governors less dependent on the colonists - less likely to pass laws.

Boston Massacre / Riot on King Street

British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.

Boston Tea Party

A raid on three British ships in Boston Harbor (December 16, 1773) in which Boston colonists, disguised as Indians, threw the contents of several hundred chests of tea into the harbor as a protest against British taxes on tea and against the monopoly granted the East India Company.

Coercive Acts / Intolerable Acts

All of these names refer to the same acts, passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, and which included the Boston Port Act, which shut down Boston Harbor; the Massachusetts Government Act, which disbanded the Boston Assembly (but it soon reinstated itself); the Quartering Act, which required the colony to provide provisions for British soldiers; and the Administration of Justice Act, which removed the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.

First Continental Congress

The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.

Lexington and Concord

The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.

Bunker Hill / Breed's Hill

A battle that took place on the strategic point of Breed's Hill. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. Yet, it ended up giving America confidence and it pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.

Dunmore's Proclamation

Governor of Virginia - declared martial law and promised freedom for slaves of American patriots who left their masters and joined the royal forces

Second Continental Congress

the Continental Congress that convened in May 1775, served as the only agency of national government during the Revolutionary War.
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence.

Declaration of Independence

July 4, 1776. This document stated that because the English king had broken the social contract, the colonists had the right to rebel. It includes a list of the king's abuses as well as a description of natural rights. With this document, Enlightenment ideas were put into practice. Written mostly by Thomas Jefferson

Committee of Five

Chosen to create a document that gave reasons for separation from England (Declaration of Independence); Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.

English Bill of Rights

(1689) A Bill of Rights written after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 which placed William and Mary on the throne of England. The bill created a limited monarchy and established Parliament as the ruling body of the nation.

George Mason

American Revolutionary leader from Virginia whose objections led to the drafting of the Bill of Rights. Anti-federalist

Thomas Jefferson

The third president of the US (1801-1809); a member of the second Continental Congress; drafted Declaration of Independence (1776); presidency marked by Louisiana Purchase and Embargo of 1807, A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation's third president from 1801 to 1809, Jefferson organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality; made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore it (1743-1826)

King George's Statue

Before July 9, 1776 an equestrian statue of King George II stood menacingly on Bowling Green in New York City. On that date Patriots toppled the structure and cut it into pieces, many of which were melted down and cast into bullets for firing against British soldiers. As told in this enlightening story, all known original pieces have surfaced in a variety of locations - and the search for others continues. George Washington disapproved..... The head was stolen by Tories and was last seen in England (Hasn't been seen in a while)

Fort Ticonderoga

Ethan Allen (with Benedict Arnold) and the Green Mountain Boys captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British in May 1775 without firing a single shot


1777 American Revolution battle fought in northern New York. British planned to end the American Revolution by splitting the colonies along the Hudson River, but they failed to mobilize properly. British ended up surrendering, allowing for the first great American victory. Demonstrated that the British could more easily hold the cities, but that they would have trouble with subduing the countrysides. Considered a turning point, as French aid began after this battle.

King's Mountain

(1780) Battle in North Carolina where Patriots defeated Loyalist militia- a loss for Cornwallis. Many neutral citizens came over to patriot side.


The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped us. The war was over, and colonists had won!
British General Cornwallis is surrounded by French forces by sea and Washington's troops by land 1781


American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence

Treaty of Paris, 1783

Negotiated by Ben Franklin, John Jay, and John Adams, it said 1. British would recognize the existence of the US as an independent nation; 2. The Mississippi River would be the western boundary of US; 3. Americans would have fishing rights off Canadian coast; 4. American would pay debts owed to British merchants and honor Loyalist Claims for property taken during the war

Articles of Confederation

This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage. Later replaced by the Constitution

Land Ordinances

The ordinances of 1784, based on a proposal by Jefferson, divided the western territyory into 10 self governing districts. The ordinance of 1785 created a system for surveyng and selling land. (The grid system was established) The NW ordinance of 1787 abandoned the 10 districts and cerated a single NW territory. The grids were 36 square miles each

Shay's Rebellion

Occurred in the winter of 1786-7 under the Articles of Confederation. Poor, indebted landowners in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented the government from arresting or repossessing the property of those in debt. The federal government was too weak to help Boston remove the rebels, a sign that the Articles of Confederation weren't working effectively.

John Adams

2nd President of the United States (1735-1826). A New England Lawyer - defended the soldiers in the Boston Massacre. He was a Federalist. Played a leading role in persuading Congress to declare independence. He assigned Thomas Jefferson the role of drafting the United States Declaration of Independence in 1776, and assisted him in that process. As a representative of Congress in Europe, he was a major negotiator of the eventual peace treaty with Great Britain

Abigail Adams

Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create. Very politically knowledgeable.

Constitutional Convention

Beginning on May 25, 1787, the convention recommended by the Annapolis Convention was held in Philadelphia. All of the states except Rhode Island sent delegates, and George Washington served as president of the convention. The convention lasted 16 weeks, and on September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution of the United States, which was drafted largely by James Madison.

Unicameral Legislature

a one house assembly whose members are chosen by voters

Bicameral Legislature

A law making body made of two houses (bi means 2). Example: Congress (our legislature) is made of two house - The House of Representatives and The Senate.

Randolph's Virginia Plan

A proposal by Virginia delegates, for a bicameral legislative branch

Patterson's New Jersey Plan

Called for only one congressional house, with all members elected by the state legislatures

Connecticut / Grand Compromise

Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators

Slavery and the Constitution

slave trade, three-fifths clause, Fugitive Slave law: Although the word "slavery" was not used in the Constitution, the idea surfaces in three places in the Constitution: the three-fifths clause, which lessened the power of the voting south by making the votes of three slaves equal that of five white votes; the Fugitive Slave Law, which captured and returned runaway slaves who fled into free territories, and lastly Congress' option to ban the slave trade in Washington D. C. after 1808.

Ratifying Conventions

In late 1787 and in 1788 these were held in all states for the purpose of ratifying the new Constitution of the United States. Needed 3/4ths of the states


Led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams, the Federalists believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. The Federalist influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention.


They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party. They included Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, and Patrick Henry

Mercy Otis Warren

(1728 - 1814) was an American writer and playwright. She was known as the "Conscience of the American Revolution". Mercy Otis was America's first female playwright, having written unbylined anti-British and anti-Loyalist propaganda plays from 1772 to 1775, and was the first woman to create a Jeffersonian (anti-Federalist) interpretation of the Revolution,

Federalist Papers

a series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison to convince readers to ratify the Constitution in New York State. The essays were later used to promote the ratification of the Constitution in other states. The Federalist Papers stand as a primary on what the writers of the Constitution had in mind when they were creating the document.

James Madison

The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812. Proposed the Virginia Plan

Alexander Hamilton

1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt. Aaron Burr eventually shot him

John Jay

United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press. Supported by Antifederalists

George Washington's Precedent

Unofficial until after FDR, a president would serve only 2 terms so as not to be compared to a monarchy

Washington's Cabinet

Henry Knox (Secretary of War/Defense; Thomas Jefferson (Sec. of State); Alexander Hamilton (Sec. of Treasury); Edmund Randolph (Attorney General); A body of executive department heads that serve as the chief advisors to the President. Formed during the first years of Washington's Presidency, the original members of the cabinet included the Sec. of State, of the Tres. and of War. The cabinet is extremely important to the presidency, because these people influence the most powerful man in the nation.

Jeffersonian Republicans

One of nations first political parties, led by Thomas Jeffrson and stemming from the anti-federalists, emerged around 1792, gradually became today's Democratic party. The Jeffersonian republicans were pro-French, liberal, and mostly made up of the middle class. They favored a weak central govt., and strong states's rights.

Hamiltonian Federalists

Strongly nationalistic; broad interpretation of the US Constitution,Wanted government controlled by the rich, well-born, and able, Feared undiluted democracy (the ignorant could be manipulated)

Hamilton's Plan

The government would take the debt of the nations and the states debt, make a national bank, and tax higher (which was the only one that did not pass thru congress)

Implied Powers

Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions. Federalist View

Expressed Powers

Those delegated powers of the National Government that are spelled out, expressly, in the Constitution; also called the "enumerated powers". Antifederalist View


Economic policy of Alexander Hamilton where the central government would assume the debts of all the states. It would tie the states closer to the federal government.

Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

Washington's Farewell Address

Was printed in newspapers, not presented orally, in 1796 when President Washington decided to retire after serving two terms. In it he advised the avoidance of permanent alliances. His choice to retire after two terms established a tradition for American presidents that was later made part of the Constitution in 1951. Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.

Sally Hemings

A slave with whom Thomas Jefferson is reported to have had children (her descendants are related to him somehow)

1796 Election

This was the race for the presidency after George Washington retired. John Adams was the Federalist Party's candidate and Thomas Jefferson was the Democratic-Republican's candidate. It was a very intense race, with the issues focusing heavily on personalities. John Adams, who was mostly supported in New England, won the election and became president. As runner-up, Thomas Jefferson became vice president. Along with the presidency, Adams inherited the violent quarrel with France. They strongly dislike each other

XYZ Affair

1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.

Quasi War

- Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800. The French began to seize American ships trading with their British enemies and refused to receive a new United States minister when he arrived in Paris in December 1796.

Alien and Sedition Acts

These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.

Virginia / Kentucky Resolution

Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.

Aaron Burr

Aaron Burr was one of the leading Democratic-Republicans of New york, and served as a U.S. Senator from New York from 1791-1797. He was the principal opponent of Alexander Hamilton's Federalist policies. In the election of 1800, Burr tied with Jefferson in the Electoral College. The House of Representatives awarded the Presidency to Jefferson and made Burr Vice- President. Later shot Hamilton in a duel (about letters criticizing Burr)

1800 Election

There were no primaries, no nominating convention, no candidate speeches, and no entourage of reporters. Thomas Jefferson and John Adams was elected by representatives in congress. Jefferson was denounced as a Bible-burning atheist, the father of mulatto children and a mad scientist. John Adams was a monarchist. In 1796 Jefferson had become Adam's vice president by virtue of finishing second. There was a tie between Aaron Burr and Jefferson for president, but in the end Jefferson won. On march 4 1801 the transition from Adams to Jefferson marked the first peaceful transfer of power between parties via the electoral process in world history. Hamilton helped Jefferson get elected

Jeffersonian Expansion

Territorial expansion of the United States was a major goal of the Jeffersonians because it would produce new farm lands for yeomen farmers. The Jeffersonians wanted to integrate the Indians into American society, or remove further west those tribes that refused to integrate; Led to Louisiana Purchase

Louisiana Purchase

The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.

Lewis and Clark

1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.

War of 1812

War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism. Resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army

Horseshoe Bend

On March 27, 1814, United States forces and Indian allies under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Sticks, a part of the Creek Indian tribe inspired by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, effectively ending the Creek War.

John Marshall

Created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court. Supported Federalist Views

Marbury v. Madison

The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).

Andrew Jackson

The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers; military leader of Florida, commander of the American forces at the battle of New Orleans, and a founder of the Democratic Party. He was polarizing figure who dominated American politics in the 1820s and 30s. Was called "old hickory" due to his toughness and his association with the frontier, and based his career in Tennessee.

John Quincy Adams

John Quincy Adams was the puritan son of President John Adams. He led five American peace-makers to Ghent to draw up a treaty between America and Britain to end the War of 1812. The treaty was signed by both sides on Christmas Eve in 1814. Adams was also Monroe's Secretary of State and the real author of Monroe's Doctrine which established isolationism; 6th U.S. President. 1825-1829. Democratic-Republican. Secretary of State under Monroe. Skilled diplomat as evidenced by the Adams-Onis Treaty and the Treaty of Ghent. Accused of winning the presidency with a "corrupt bargain" with Clay. Repealed the Gag Rule in 1845.

Martin Van Buren

He was the eighth president of the United States who was experienced in legislative and administrative life. He passed the Divorce Bill which placed the federal surplus in vaults located in large cities and denied the backing system. Lost re-election because of Panic of 1837

Peggy Eaton

Social scandal (1829-1831) - John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson. Jackson took her very personally because of the struggles that his wife went through.


The theory advanced by John Calhoun in response to the Tariff of 1828 (the Tariff of Abominations); states, acting through a popular convention, could declare a law passed by Congress "null and void"; the roots of the idea go back to Jefferson and Madison's compact theory of government and are originally spelled out in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.

5 Civilized Tribes

Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole, and Choctaw nations adopted the colonists' customs, had generally good relations. Cherokee in particular adopted written language from Sequoia, Private Property in the form of Land, had their own newspaper called Cherokee Phoenix, some even adopted slavery and Christianity. Viewed as "civilized" because of written language, Christianity, and private property.


Cherokee who created a notation for writing the Cherokee language (1770-1843)

John Marshall's views on Cherokee

His ruling asserts the primacy of the United States over indigenous peoples by "constitutionalizing" the legacy of royal power and prerogative in the "general government." Primacy was defined as a "special relationship" between the federal government and the Indians , in an attempt to exclude the states from any role in the management of Indian lands. Basically said individual states couldn't take land because of this national relationship. Andrew Jackson ignored him.

John G. Burnett

A private involved in executing the Trail of Tears; wrote that the soldiers, "had to execute the orders of our superiors. We had no choice in the matter." Showed remorse for his actions.

Trail of Tears

The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.

Transportation Revolution

A term often used by historians to describe the dramatic improvement in transportation in the West that took place in the early 1800s. The Transportation Revolution included greatly improved roads, the development of canals, and the invention of the steamboat and railroad. Shipping costs were lowered as much as 90 percent in this era, which gave a big boost to trade and the settlement of new areas of land. The Erie Canal greatly helps

National Roads

First major Federally Funded Road (Maryland to Illinois), first federally funded national road project, begun in 1811. Became more widespread and shortened travel time immensely.

Canal Age

Erie Canal was built between 1818 and 1825 and stretched 100 miles from Albany on the Hudson river to Buffalo on Lake Erie. It began the canal age, and transportation greatly increased. Transportation costs in this period fall 95%.Traders flock to cities like Rochester and Lockport because they are close tothe canal. It also pushes New York into the lead importance as a city. Western states constructed canals to connect the great lakes. The canal age was over by 1850, replaced by railroads and steamboats.

Erie Canal

Super important. See Canal Age

Flat Boats

Flat bottom boats used for the journey down the rivers such as the Mississippi to travel into the south - especially Louisiana (New Orleans was a port city). Very fast and efficient on the way down, took almost 7 months on the way back. Farmers traveled this way to sell their goods from the midwest and the north. Replaced by the steamboats

Samuel Slater

He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.

Rhode Island System

a system developed by Samuel Slater in the mid-1800s in which whole families were hired as textile workers and factory work was divided into simple tasks

Frances Lowell

American business man who started Boston Manufacturing Company. A fore-runner to future American industrialists and pioneered the employment of women, which started the Lowell system of hiring young unmarried women

Vertical Integration

Practice in which a single manufacturer controls all of the steps used to change raw materials into finished products.

Mill Girls

Young unmarried women from Yankee farm families dominated the workforce that tended the spinning machines. To prersuade parents to allow their daughters to do this, Lowell set up boarding houses with strict rules regulating personal behavior. They also established lecture halls and churches

Mill Families

Slater used this and hired families to work in his mills for cheaper labor - created towns around the mills


A policy of treating subject people as if they were children, providing for their needs but not giving them rights. Example - allowing mill workers to live in company houses, as long as the workers did exactly as the mill told them to do.



Question: Committees of Correspondence in the colonies during the 1760s:

Student answered: c) were a group of colonial elites who exchanged ideas and information about resistance to the Sugar, Currency, and Stamp Acts.

Question: On October 17, 1777, the Americans scored an important victory against British forces at:

Student answered: d) Saratoga.

Question: The British imposed a direct tax (also called an "internal tax") for the first time on colonists with the:

Student answered: d) Stamp Act.

Question: Which of the following was not a feature of the 1774 Intolerable Acts?

Student answered: c) the repression of Catholicism in the colonies

Question: In September 1780, the able American commander ____________ turned traitor to the American cause and almost turned West Point over to the British.

Student answered: d) Benedict Arnold

Question: Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?

Student answered: b) founding of Sons of Liberty; establishment of Committees of Safety; first boycott of British goods; Boston Massacre

Question: Thomas Paine's January 1776 pamphlet Common Sense argued all of the following EXCEPT:

Student answered: d) It was common sense that in the struggle for independence the slaves to whom Lord Dunmore offered freedom ought to be freed.

Question: Sons of Liberty (1765) were said to oppose "every limitation of trade and duty on it." In this context define "duty":

Student answered: c) tax

Question: The final decisive victory in the War for Independence was:

Student answered: d) Cornwallis's defeat at Yorktown.

Question: The Daughters of Liberty were:

Student answered: b) women who spun and wove cloth during the 1768 Townshend Duties boycott.

Question: Which was not part of the Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770?

Student answered: d) It witnessed tea thrown into Boston Harbor and an Indian massacre.

Question: The idea that the United States has a special mission to serve as a symbol of freedom, a refuge from tyranny, and a model for the world is called by historians:

Student answered: d) American exceptionalism.

Question: Which of the following was not a feature of the Stamp Act crisis of 1765?

Student answered: b) The Stamp Act was passed by the Stamp Act Congress as a way to subvert the power of Parliament to tax the colonies.

Question: Which of the following was not a British law forbidding colonial manufacture?

Student answered: b) the Molasses Act of 1733

Question: What did the 1766 Declaratory Act declare?

Student answered: a) that Parliament had the power to pass laws for the colonies "in all cases whatever"

Question: The Carolina "Regulators" of the mid-1760s were:

Student answered: a) a group of wealthy residents of the backcountry who protested the lack of courts and lack of representation in the colonial governance.

Question: The Declaration of Independence:

Student answered: a) declared the United States independent of British rule.

Question: British success in the Seven Years'War contributed to the making of the American Revolution because:

Student answered: a) the British raised taxes to pay for the debt it incurred during the war.

Question: What two European powers allied with the Americans in the War for Independence?

Student answered: c) France and Spain

Question: Which of the following does not help explain the electrifying impact of Thomas Paine's Common Sense?

Student answered: a) an insistence that America stood ready to supplant Britain as the world's supreme imperial power

Question: Which was not a consequence of the 1765 Stamp Act?

Student answered: c) Postal service was restricted to only those willing to obey the law

Question: When colonists insisted that because they were not represented in Parliament they could not be taxed by the British government, the British replied that they were represented by:

Student answered: c) Virtual representation.

Question: Which of the following was not a part of the balance of power between the British and American forces during the Revolution?

Student answered: c) The British public was ambivalent over a war to retain the colonies; the American public was united behind a war for independence.

Question: Following the Boston Tea Party, Parliament imposed restrictions on Massachusetts that included closing the port of Boston, curtailing town meetings, and allowing soldiers to be lodged in people's houses. These restrictions were called:

Student answered: c) Coercive or Intolerable Acts

Question: Which was not part of the Boston Tea Party?

Student answered: a) John Adams was sent to prison on December 17, 1773.

Question: What did the Sugar Act of 1764 that so vexed the colonists do to the already existing tax on molasses imported from the French West Indies?

Student answered: b) it decreased it

Question: The First Continental Congress met for:

Student answered: a) two months

Question: Which of the following was not a source of misgivings in the colonies over the prospect of a complete break with Britain?

Correct answer is: d) fear that England's withdrawal from North America would leave the former colonies open to frontier conflict with the Spanish

Question: Opposition to the Stamp Act was the first great drama of the revolutionary era.

Student answered: a) True

Question: More Americans than Frenchmen participated in George Washington's decisive victory at Yorktown.

Student answered: b) False

Question: By late 1774, colonial Committees of Safety had begun transferring effective power from established colonial governments (under British control) to grassroots bodies; by 1775, some 7,000 men were serving on local committees throughout the colonies.

Student answered: a) True

Question: During the Revolution, the British took great care not to disrupt the lives of American civilians.

Student answered: b) False

Question: The 1764 Sugar Act provoked the colonists by increasing the tax on molasses imported into North America.

Student answered: b) False

Question: "Liberty" was the foremost popular rallying cry in the Age of Revolution that began in British North America and spread to Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean.

Student answered: a) True

Question: Urban merchants had particular reservations about colonial boycotts of British goods.

Student answered: a) True

Question: By substituting "pursuit of happiness" for "property," Jefferson's Declaration of Independence significantly broadened the American conception of freedom.

Student answered: a) True

Question: In the 1760s, "liberty" became the foremost slogan of colonial resistance.

Student answered: a) True

Question: As tensions between Britain and the colonies mounted, social conflict within the colonies faded.

Student answered: b) False

Question: By 1780, demoralization within the patriots' ranks was widespread.

Student answered: a) True

Question: When, on April 19, 1775, British soldiers marched from Boston to the nearby town of Concord to seize a cache of weapons, some forty-nine Americans and seventy-three British soldiers died in skirmishes.

Student answered: a) True

Question: By "unalienable rights" Thomas Jefferson meant rights so basic that no government could take them away.

Student answered: a) True

Question: During the War for Independence five percent of U.S. males aged sixteen to forty-five died.


Question: By the time of the Stamp Act crisis, "natural rights" had eclipsed the "rights of freeborn Englishmen" in the language of colonial protest.


Question: The Stamp Act crisis was, in part, a battle to define and extend liberty in colonial America.

Student answered: a) True

Question: Which of the following was not an effect of the struggle for independence on religion in America?

Correct answer is: c) a marked decline in the influence of religion in American society

Question: Phillis Wheatley is celebrated in American history as:

Student answered: a) a published poet and slave.

Question: Thomas Jefferson helped pass laws in the state of Virginia that abolished primogeniture. Define "primogeniture":

Student answered: b) passing of all of a family's land to the oldest son

Question: What percentage of non-slave Americans remained loyal to the British during the American Revolution?


Question: Which of the following was not an effect of the struggle for independence on economic thought and policy in America?

Student answered: b) The estates of wealthy landowners were appropriated by Congress and redistributed among the rural poor.

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