Learning Catalytics Review TICA, IKE Module 4

Label the diagram below to show the relationships between nutritional modes of bacteria.
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 175
Terms in this set (175)
association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria (legumes), assosiation with fungi (mycorrhizae), parasitism, carnivory

nitrogen is often the most critically limiting nutrient, as it can only be made biologically available by a few species of bacteria. thus plants which live in extremely nitrogen-poor environments often have carnivorous adaptations to provide an additional sources of nitrogen from other living organisms.
Parasitism allows plants to directly 'steal' nutrients such as nitrogen from other plants.
A few species of bacteria are the only organisms capable of reducing ("fixing") atmospheric nitrogen to make it biologically available. Just as plants and other photosynthesizers are essential as a source of carbon and oxygen for most other forms of life, these bacteria are essential as a soruce of nitrogen for most other forms of life. Nitrogen is used for synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins.
Fungi use nucleid acids and proteins from the soil organic matter; they decompose organisms containgin nitrogen which was orginally made available by the nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
A friend comes to you for dietary advice. Your friend is experiencing cracks and sores on the outer surface of their lips. Which of the following might be a nutrient your friend is lacking?Vitamin B2A friend comes to you for dietary advice. Your friend is experiencing symptoms of anemia. Which of the following might be a nutrient your friend is lacking?Vitamin B9A friend wants better hair, skin, and nails. Assuming your friend has a deficiency in a vitamin, which of the following supplements should you suggest they try?BiotinYour friend wants to apply a topical cream containing retinol to improve their skin. However, an excess of vitamin A interferes with fetal development, and your friend is currently pregnant. To be safe, which of the following foods would be good for her to eat instead of using the cream?dark green leafy vegetables, dairy, yellow-orange fruitsCertain nutrients are considered "essential" in the diets of some animals because _____.the nutrients are required for normal organismal function, these animals are not able to synthesize these nutrientsWhich of the following is an advantage of a complete digestive tract?Large pieces can be ingestedThe absorption of fats differs from that of carbohydrates in that _____.most absorbed fat first enters the lymphatic system, whereas carbohydrates directly enter the bloodIf a person has a pancreatic disorder, which of the following might they be unable to digest?ProteinsPlace the following digestion events in sequential order. If two events occur in the same organ, you should set them as equal to one another. Pepsinogen is cleaved to form pepsin Polypeptides are cleaved into individual amino acids by proteases Salivary amylase hydrolyzes starch Digested food material is compacted and most remaining water absorbed Parietal cells secrete HCl Bile salts and pancreatic amylase are secretedSalivary amylase hydrolyzes starch < Parietal cells secrete HCl = Pepsinogen is cleaved to form pepsin < Bile salts and pancreatic amylase are secreted = Polypeptides are cleaved into individual amino acids by proteases < Digested food material is compacted and most remaining water absorbed in the mouth, salivary amylase breaks down complex carbohydrates during chewing. once the food is swallowed and passes through the esophagus into the stomach, the stomach secretes both HCl and pepsinogen. The HCl activates the pepsinogen into pepsin, which breaks down large proteins into polypeptides (shorter chains of amino acids). after digestion in the stomach, the bolus of food moves into the small intestine where the gall bladder secretes bile salts (produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder) to digest lipids, and the pancreas secretes pancreatic amylyase and other digestive enzymes. these enzymes cause further digestion of material into individual components such as polypeptides broken down into individual amino acids. these nutrients are then absorbed into the blood stream (or moved into the lymph in the case of lipids) in the small intestine. after absorption of nutrients in the small intestine, the digested material moves into the large intestine where water is reabsorbed and the material is compacted for elimination.Match the enzyme to the type of nutrient it breaks down.amylase - carbohydrates bile salts - fats pepsin - proteins lipase - fats trypsin - proteins nuclease - nucleic acidsMatch the enzyme to the organ that secretes it during digestion.amylase - mouth bile salts - liver (stored in gall bladder) pepsin - stomach lipase, trypsin, nuclease - pancreasCompare and contrast the roles of the cecum, rumen, and crop in digestion. What types of animals have these digestive features?contain mutualistic microbes which digest plant material; cecums are present in hindgut fermenters such as rabbits and horses; rumens are present in foregut fermenters such as cows; crops are present in birds and invertebrates cellulose, the primary structural carbohydrate in plants, cannot broken down by any animal enzymes. only certain microorganisms produce an enzyme capable of digesting cellulose. thus herbivores rely on a host of mutualistic microorganisms that reside in their digestive tracts to digest cellulosic material. the specialized digestive tract chambers of cows (rumen) and horses (large cecum) house these microorganisms. the rumen is present in foregut fermenters such as cows, the cecum is present in hindgut fermenters such as horses and rabbits. the crop can serve different purposes in different animals. in some animals it functions in food storage for later digestion, but in some herbivorours birds, it functions analogously to the cecum or rumen by housing mutualistic microorganisms that break down cellulosic material.Describe the role of the gizzard in digestion. What types of animals have gizzards? What digestive structure do these organisms lack?mechanical disruption of food; animals with crops lack teeth adapted for chewing the gizzard functions in mechanical breakdown in organisms that lack teeth. it is present in may different types of organisms including birds, reptiles, earthworms, some fish, and crustaceans. many types of animals swallow stones or sand that is stored in the gizzard to aid in mechanical disruption of food.Which of the following would you expect to have the greatest surface area, and why? mouth; stomach; small intestine; large intestingsmall intestine; where bulk of nutrient absorption occurs two of the most important factors in absorption are large surface area to maximize the space where absorprtion can occur, and a very thin membrane for absoption to occur across. the small intestine has both of these features.Mom and dad come to you, their doctors, and report no dirty diapers after feedings. Their now 3-day-old baby isn't pooping, and they feel something is wrong. Which of the following reasons could possibly explain this?There is a blockage somewhere in the baby's digestive track, The digestive enzymes in the gut are not functioning properly.As their doctors, you ask whether the baby has spat up or vomited at all. The parents confirm this happens regularly, but they aren't sure what the substance is that the baby is ejecting. You ask them to feed the child again, and take a sample of the mystery substance that the baby ejects. Which of the following substances could you check for to narrow down the organ where the issue might be happening?BileGiven your results from the baby's spit up/vomit, you run an MRI right after the baby ate. This allows you to determine whether there is a blockage in the organ that generates that enzyme (physical), or if there is a problem with the enzymes themselves (chemical). Which of the following results would help you decide whether the problem is solely physical or chemical?Chemical: The enzyme was spit up, but the digestive path appears normal, Physical: The enzyme was not spit up, but the digestive path has a lump stopping movement of foodYou ask to hold the baby and feel a hard mass in the abdomen. Together with your chemical and physical findings, you decide to operate on the small intestine to remove what appears to be a cyst. If you're successful, what will the baby's digestive system be able to do now that it couldn't before?Poop!, absorb sugars, break down fatty acids, absorb amino acidsWhy is it harder to breathe at high elevations?The air is "thinner" and holds less oxygen per unit volume. The atmospheric pressure is lower, resulting in a lower partial pressure for O2.Which of the following correctly describes why water is more difficult to respire in compared to air?Water is about 1000x more dense than air, and thus requires more energy to ventilate the respiratory surface (inhale/exhale).Fick's law of diffusion describes the rate of diffusion across a respiratory surface. rate of diffusion = k * A * (P2-P1)/D where k is a diffusion constant (dependent on the gas and T) A is surface area P is partial pressure in either side (1, 2) of the surface D is depth of surface The structures of respiratory organs have been evolutionarily selected to maximize gas exchange. What aspect(s) of respiratory organ structure are most likely to be MAXIMIZED/LARGEST to increase the rate of diffusion?area for gas exchange, partial pressure difference area for gas exchange: large surface area in lungs/gills/tracheae; partial pressure difference: efficient respiratory organs maintain a high partial pressure difference across the respiratory medium (e.g. cross-current or counter-current flow) depth of the surface (barrier to diffusion) is MINIMIZED in respiratory organs; the greater the depth, the less efficient diffusion is.The only animals that use skin as a significant portion of their respiratory surface (ie, use skin for gas exchange) are largely aquatic/amphibious. Yet water is a less efficient medium for gas exchange than air. Why do you suppose all skin-ventilated animals reside in/near water?the thin membranes required for efficient gas exchange increases the risk of dehydrationThe difference between positive pressure ventilation (PPV) and negative pressure ventilation (NPV) is that:PPV occurs when air is pushed into the respiratory organ; NPV occurs when air is pulled into the respiratory organWhich of the following promotes oxygen release from hemoglobin?A decrease in pH in body tissueA shift to the right of the oxygen-hemoglobin equilibrium curve correlates with:increased oxygen delivery to a tissueWhich is happening when PO2 is at 100?O2 is loading onto the hemoglobin in the lungsWhere is oxygen content the LOWEST?In venous blood during exerciseO2 binding by hemoglobin is cooperative. Which model is more effective for delivery of oxygen to tissues during exercise, when O2 demands are high?cooperativeDraw what happens to the hemoglobin-saturation curve when pH is decreased compared to the "normal" curve.The oxygen-dissociation curve shift to the right, with the Sigmoidal shape maintained and near 100% saturation still achieved at high PO2.Fetal hemoglobin (encoded by a different gene than adult hemoglobin) has a higher affinity for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin. Draw this curve on the graph below, where the existing line represents the binding curve for maternal hemoglobin.The oxygen-dissociation curve shift to the left, with the Sigmoidal shape maintained and near 100% saturation still achieved at high PO2.Referring to your answer to the previous questions, is this shift beneficial or detrimental to the developing fetus, and why?This is beneficial, because it means the fetal hemoglobin binds oxygen more tightly (has a higher affinity for oxygen) than adult hemoglobin. This higher affinity means that oxygen is transferred from the maternal hemoglobin to the fetal hemoglobin in the placenta, where maternal and fetal blood supplies are in close proximity. This process is necessary to provide oxygen to the developing fetus.What is an example of an animal with an open circulatory system?snailWhich type of blood vessel has the most muscular walls?arteriesWhich of the following is/are true of the pulmonary circuit in a four-chambered, double circulation system?the pulmonary circuit pumps oxygen-poor blood into the lungs, blood is pumped through the pulmonary circuit by the right side of the heart, the blood in the pulmonary artery is depleted of oxygenBlood moves throughout the body in an open circulatory system, rather slowly and under lower pressure than a closed circulatory system. This is suitable for a sedentary organism, but how do insects power flight with a comparatively slow, low-pressure open circulatory system?Insects use their tracheae to deliver oxygen (via air) to tissues.Which of the following statements regarding closed vs open circulatory systems is FALSE?Circulatory fluid can be pumped farther distances in open circulatory systems than in closed circulatory systemsWhich animal has a double circulatory system?snakeIn closed circulatory systems, what is/are the advantage/s of a double circulatory system compared to a single circulatory system?Oxygenated blood can return to the heart for additional pumping before going to systemic flow. Higher blood pressure can be sustained, supporting terrestrial lifestylesWhy is a single-circuit circulatory system sufficient for fish?gravity does not affect blood flow in water as much as on landIn turtles and crocodilians, what is the adaptive advantage of the bypass vessel which directs blood returning from the systemic circuit back to the systemic circuit without flowing through the lungs for gas exchange?directs blood back to body tissues when underewater without wasting time/energy through pulmonary circutBirds and mammals have similar heart structures with four completely divided ventricles because:Four-chambered hearts are a result of selection for a powerful circulatory organ to support the endothermic lifestyle Four-chambered hearts in birds and mammals are are a result of convergent evolutionVeins always carry deoxygenated blood.FalseRank the velocity of blood in each of the following types of vessels from SLOWEST to FASTEST. veins arteries capillariescapillaries < veins < arteriesRank the blood pressure in each of the following types of vessels from LOWEST to HIGHEST. veins arteries capillariesveins < capillaries < arteriesBlood capillaries must reabsorb all the fluid they emit, or edema (swelling) will occur.FalseThere are no valves at the point where venous blood flows into the atria.TrueMatch the valve status to the stage in the cardiac cycle. A. Atria in systole 1. AV valve open and SL valve closed B. Ventricles in systole 2. AV valve closed and SL valve open C. Atria and ventricles both in diastole 3. AV valve open and SL valve closedAtria in systole - AV valve open and SL valve closed Ventricles in systole - AV valve closed and SL valve open Atria and ventricles both in diastole - AV valve open and SL valve closedBased on function, which region of the mammalian heart should have the thickest walls (be the most muscular)?The left ventricleThere are no valves at the point where blood flows from the ventricles into arteries.FalseCardiac muscle fibers can contract without input from the nervous system. What does their anatomy require to create coordinated contraction?Gap junctions to allow depolarization to spread between muscle cellsThe SA node of the heart is:enervated by the sympathetic nervous system enervated by the parasympathetic nervous system capable of depolarizing autonomously (without neural input)increasing which of the following will also increase blood pressure?Cardiac output Heart rate Stroke volume Total peripheral resistanceStrenuous exercise results in dilation of arterioles in working muscles to increase blood flow to muscles and to skin capillaries to promote body cooling. Why doesn't blood pressure drop as a result?Constriction of other arterioles and capillaries - such as those in the digestive tract help balance out the dilation Increased cardiac output in terms of heart rate helps balance out the dilation Increased cardiac output in terms of blood volume helps balances out the dilationIf a cell is placed in a 150 mM solution of NaCl, it neither shrinks nor swells. This means that the cell is ____________ with respect to the solution.IsotonicAn aquatic animal with internal solute concentration of about 500 mOsm L-1 is placed in a fluid of solute concentration of about 700 mOsm L-1. Which of the following results is consistent with osmoregulation?Pumping out salts to keep tissues at 500 mOsm L-1.Which line represents osmoconformers, and which line represents osmoregulators?Red = osmoconformers; osmoregulators are not shownWhich of the following types of organisms is/are isotonic to its environment (does not osmoregulate)?Marine jellyfish and spongesTo maintain homeostasis, freshwater fish bring ions into their blood from the water. For freshwater fish, which of the following is/are true of this process?it occurs active transport via ATP-powered ion pumps it occurs primarily across the fish gill epithelial tissuesIn a saltwater environment, chloride secretory cells in the gills move salts ______ the fish's blood.out ofIn animals, nitrogenous wastes are produced mostly from the catabolism (breakdown) of:proteins and nucleic acidsRank the following nitrogenous waste products, from LEAST to MOST amount of water lost during excretion: urea uric acid ammoniauric acid < urea < ammoniaRank the following nitrogenous waste products, from LEAST to MOST energetically "expensive" to produce: urea uric acid ammoniaammonia < urea < uric acidAll of the following adaptations except for ___________ are seen in desert animals.nitrogenous waste excreted as ammoniaThe kidney has more collecting ducts than distal tubules.FalseA. A 1. renal corpuscle B. B 2. proximal tubule C. C 3. loop of Henle D. D 4. distal tubule E. E 5. collecting duct F. F 6. vasa rectaA - renal corpuscle B - proximal tubule C - loop of Henle D - distal tubule E - collecting duct F - vasa rectaIn the mammalian kidney the majority of water and solute recovery occurs as the ultrafiltrate passes through theproximal convoluted tubuleThe descending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to -----, and the thin ascending limb is permeable to -----.water; Na+ and Cl−Some of the "dead stuff in our food" makes it into our food chain through the activity of decomposers such as fungi. Fungi arechemoheterotrophsWhich elements are most often the limiting nutrients for plant growth?nitrogen, potassium, phosphorusWhat is the importance of consuming an adequate amount of proteins in the diet?Proteins serve a variety of functions, and the body does not store excess quantities of amino acids.How does a longer alimentary canal (digestive tract) create an advantage in processing plant material?Increased time of digestion allows for more processing.Why are many digestive enzymes produced in an inactive form and then activated in the lumen of the digestive tract?Digestive enzymes would destroy the cells that produce and secrete them if they were produced in an active form.Which of the following is not a major activity of the stomach?Nutrient absorptionWhat is the adaptive function of specialized digestive tract chambers in vegetarian animals like cows and horses?housing symbiotic bacteria required for cellulose digestion.Which of the following organs play an accessory role in the digestion of food?pancreas, gall bladder, liverWhere does chemical digestion of proteins begin?stomachWhy are respiratory systems necessary for complex, multicellular organisms?Simple diffusion is inadequate to deliver oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from tissues more than a few cell layers removed from the air interfaceHow does hemoglobin binding work?Hemoglobin is more likely to bind to oxygen once one O2 is bound.The Bohr* shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in _____.pHWhere is partial pressure of CO2 the highest?skeletal muscleWhich organism do you think has the most efficient respiratory organ?fishWhat is an example of an animal with an open circulatory system?clamWhat is the adaptive advantage of having a double circulation system and three-chambered heart of amphibians, over the single circuit and two-chambered heart of fish?Oxygenated blood can return to the heart for additional pumping before going to systemic flow.Where does gas exchange occur? Select all that apply.capillaries in the lungs and bodyThe highest arterial blood pressure attained during ventricular contraction is called [blank] pressure. The lowest attained during ventricular relaxation is called [blank] pressure.Systolic, diastolicWhich of the following is FALSE regarding the lymphatic system?lymphatic vessels are pressurized by the closed circulatory systemPlace the following structures in the proper order to illustrate flow of blood through the heart, beginning with blood returning from the systemic circuit. right atrium left atrium right AV valve left AV valve right ventricle left ventricleright atrium < right AV valve < right ventricle < left atrium < left AV valve < left ventriclePlace the following structures in order of how the electrical signal passes between structures in the heart. AV node SA node electrical fibers in atria electrical fibers in ventriclesSA node < electrical fibers in atria < AV node < electrical fibers in ventriclesatch the ECG stage to heart activity. A. P wave 1. atrial depolarization B. QRS complex 2. ventricular depolarization C. T wave 3. ventricular repolarization D. not visible in ECG 4. atrial repolarizationP wave - atrial depolarization QRS complex - ventricular depolarization T wave - ventricular repolarization not visible in ECG - atrial repolarizationThe highest possible concentration of the ultrafiltrate occursat the apex (bend) in the Loop of HenleWhich of the following organs/structures are involved in regulating kidney function via chemical signals in humans (select all that apply)kidney, brain, heart, blood, liverAnti-diuretic hormone (ADH) is released when plasma osmolarity increases, eventually causing a reduction in urine volume and retaining more water (thus allowing blood plasma concentration to decrease to a normal level). Which of the following are affected directly by ADH? (select all that apply)aquaporins in tubule cells of the collecting ductPlants use proton pumps, cation channels, and anion cotransporter channels to acquire nutrients from the soil. Which of the following requires a direct energy expenditure by the plant?proton pumpWhat is the function of proton pumps localized in the plant plasma membrane?to create a membrane potentialRoot hairs absorb nutrients from soil against the nutrient concentration gradient. Depending on the nutrient, which of the following can play a role in this process?facilitated diffusion electrochemical gradient co-transportNitrifying bacteria can have a strong impact on the nutrient content of soils because:they transform biologically available N to a form that that washes out of soil easilyin a legume root nodule, the nitrogenase:is encoded by the Rhizobium genome, converts nitrogen gas to a biologically available form of nitrogenin a legume root nodule, the leghemoglobin:regulates the amount of oxgyen available, is encoded by the plant genomeWhich of the following statements about mycorrhizae is/are FALSE?Mycorrhizae are parasitic associations of roots and fungiSome plants obtain nitrogen from symbiotic fungi or bacteria. What was the original source of N that the FUNGI obtained?proteins in the soilWhich of the following would decrease the flow of water in xylem?Coastal soils, Desert soilsCompared to plants from other environments, the cells of many desert plants contain high concentrations of solutes. This helps them survive in their arid surroundings because the high solute concentrations create relatively [blank], which helps retain water and prevent reverse flow of water from roots to soil.low solute potentialsRoot pressure can best be described asA high pressure potential driven by accumulation of ions and water by osmosisWhat forces are responsible for capillarity?adhesion of water molecules to the sides of xylem cells, cohesion of water molecules to each other, and surface tensionWhich of the following is NOT a key component of the cohesion-tension process in xylem?Use of ATPUnder which of the following conditions would the rate of transpiration INCREASE?When the weather changes and air becomes drier, When atmospheric pressure is lowFor the beaker in the bottom image, the piston pressure must be:ψP = 0.4For beaker in the top image, the psi values (ψS and ψP) within the tube are:ψS + ψP = 0When an animal cell is placed in a hypotonic solution and water enters the cell via osmosis, the volume of the cell increases until it bursts. Does the same thing happen in plant cells? Why or why not?no, because of the cell wallWhich transport pathway does NOT involve a "filtering" step by a selectively permeable membrane?ApoplastWhich time point is depicted in this diagram?During the growing seasonIt is the middle of the fruiting season for apples. Some apples are maturing on the tree; others are only beginning to develop from ovaries. Which of the following would MAXIMIZE the size of the apples on the tree?Remove the flowers and the smallest apples from the treeThe rate of sugar transport in a plant depends on (select all that apply)the difference in turgor pressure between the source and the sink, the rate of photosynthesisIn the pressure-flow mechanism, loading of sucrose from companion cells to sieve-tube elements takes place through _____.plasmodesmataIndicate where energy is required during the loading of the sieve-tube members (as close to the exact location as possible).place between companion cell & source (sucrose movement)Indicate where passive transport is responsible for bulk flow in phloem.down the phloemIndicate where energy is required for the unloading of sucrose into root storage cells (as close to the exact location as possible.sink (root cell)Indicate where sucrose is moved by a co-transporter.sink (root cell) & place between companion cell & source (sucrose movement)What would be different if the sink were a newly growing leaf instead of a mature storage root cell?ATP would not be required, because sugar would be immediately metabolized for growth instead of stored (it would not have to be moved against its concentration gradient)Phloem transport of sucrose is often described as going from source to sink. Which of the following is most likely to function as a source?storage bulb in early springAccording to the pressure-flow hypothesis of phloem transport:solute moves from area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration near the sink cellsIn the pressure-flow mechanism, loading of sucrose into companion cells at the source takes place throughco-transportWhich of the following best describes the relationship between movement of water in xylem and the pressure-flow hypothesis?Sugar solute moves from area of high concentration at the source to an area of lower concentration near the sink cells; water flows from xylem into phloem as a result of the high sugar solute concentrationWhich of the following best describes the energy requirements for movement of sugar through phloem?ATP pumps and cotransport are required for loading companion cells at the sugar sourceThe alternative pathways of photosynthesis using the C4 or CAM systems are said to be compromises. Why?Both minimize photorespiration but expend more ATP during carbon fixation.Which of the following statements about C4 plants is/are true?The Calvin Cycle takes place deeper in the plant tissue than in C3 plants. Corn (maize) is an example of a C4 plant. PEP carboxylase has a higher affinity for CO2 than does rubisco.Which of the following statements about CAM plants is/are true?The Calvin Cycle takes place at a different time than initial CO2 fixation.Place the following steps in order for the process of carbon fixation in CAM plants. Stomata are opened at night. Rubisco fixes CO2 during the day. CO2 is released to the Calvin cycle. CO2 is fixed into a 4-carbon organic acid.Stomata are opened at night. , CO2 is fixed into a 4-carbon organic acid. , CO2 is released to the Calvin cycle. , Rubisco fixes CO2 during the day.Which of the following is a strategy that could be employed by a plant that is EITHER subject to long-term drought OR subjected to extreme flooding?increased cell deathEvaporation differs from convection in thatEvaporation involves the dissipation of heat through the formation of gas. Evaporation can only cool an organism; convection can cool or heat an organism.Emperor penguins huddle in close proximity (without direct contact) to thermoregulate as a group, and individuals take turns standing at the outer edge of the group, exposed to the wind. The individuals at the outer edge are subject to more [blank] and less [blank] than those in the middle.convection; radiationEctotherms are most likely to to use these methods of heat gain:conduction, radiationEndotherms are always homeotherms.FalseEndothermy and ectothermy are mutually exclusive modes of thermoregulation. (An animal can only use one method)FalsePoikilotherms have no ability to regulate body temperature.FalseUse the following information to classify the animal below according to its thermoregulation strategy: Ground squirrels hibernate during the winter. Ground squirrels are:endothermic, heterothermicUse the following information to classify the animal below according to its thermoregulation strategy: Hummingbirds have extremely high metabolic rates when active, but exhibit a drop in metabolic rate of almost 95% during cold nights. Hummingbirds are:endothermic, heterothermicUse the following information to classify the animal below according to its thermoregulation strategy: Arctic shrimp are invertibrates which inhabit the arctic ocean. Artic shrimp are:ectothermic, homeothermicA mouse and lizard with the same body mass were placed in experimental chambers and their metabolic rates measured over a range of temperatures. From the data shown in the graph, which were collected from the mouse and which from the lizard?A-mouse; B-lizardThe temperature difference between arterial and venous blood nearer to the goose's body:allows the goose to minimize heat loss to the environment.Which of the following is not a use of a countercurrent exchange system?The exchange of CO2 and O2 in the human lungWhich kind of fish has to actively drink its surrounding water to maintain electrolyte homeostasis?marineTo maintain homeostasis freshwater fish must _____.excrete large quantities of waterThe advantage of excreting nitrogenous wastes as urea rather than as ammonia is that _____.urea is less toxic than ammoniaWhich of these structures represents water and ion exchange with the blood stream?A renal corpuscle K vasa rectaWhich location is saltier: site #3 or site #5?site 5Beavers have relatively little need to conserve water and could therefore be expected to have _______ than humans do.Shorter nephron loopsWhich location is has higher osmolarity: site #3 or site #5?site 5Soil consists of:rock particles of various sizes minerals microorganisms organic matter from dead organismsModerate soil acidity means there are protons in the soil. Protons help nutrient availability by _____.promoting cation exchangeWhich of the following soil minerals is most likely leached away during a hard rain (ie, dissolve easily in soil water)?NO3-Clay in soils represents a trade-off in nutrient availability, such becausecations are less likely to leach out of soil but are difficult for plants to extractWhich of the following is required for acquisition of nutrients from clay-rich soils?proton pumps facilitated diffusionWater moves from an area of [blank] water potential to [blank] water potential.high; lowIf ΨP = 0.3 MPa and ΨS = -0.45 MPa, the resulting Ψ is _____.-0.15 MPaWater potential is generally most negative in which of the following parts of a plant?mesophyll cells of the leafWhat is the force behind the process known as "transpiration" in plants?Cohesion-tension pulls water up via exporation from leaves.Match the pathway to the appropriate description:apoplast - outside the cell, via the cell wall symplast - through the shared cell cytoplasm, via plasmodesmata transmembrane - through the cell membrane, via water channelsWhich of the following is likely to be a sugar sink?Fruit Flower Apical meristem New leaf Root during the middle of the growing seasonWhy is it important that the xylem is adjacent to the phloem?Pressure from xylem water moves nutrients through the phloem.Water flows into the source end of a sieve tube because _____sucrose has been actively transported into the sieve tube, making it hypertonicThe companion cells near the source have high concentrations of sucrose. How does this happen?Co-transporters move sugars against their concentration gradient into the companion cellsWhich of the following is true of fluid transport in vascular plants?Water moves due to negative pressure, sugar moves due to positive pressureWhich statement is correct regarding how CO2 is delivered to rubisco in C3, C4, or CAM plants?In C4 plants, CO2 is delivered via four-carbon organic acids.Radiation differs from conduction in thatRadiation involves the release of heat without necessarily making contact.