Consciousness Lecture

What is consciousness?
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How do psychologists define personality?What is the difference between historical truth and narrative truth, and how are these two concepts related to personality research and theory?In terms of personality theories, Freud was described as a "grand theorist" who addressed personality structure, personality processes, and personality development. What are some key terms from lecture and your text that correspond to these dimensions of personality?According to Freud, what are some ways for people to access the unconscious?Not all of Freud's proteges or collaborators agreed with his ideas about personality. What are some differences of opinion between Freud and the neo-Freudians like Adler, Jung, or Erikson?According to Adler, what is the most powerful of human motives, and what can happen if that motive is thwarted? How do parents influence personality development?How was Carl Jung's approach to personality similar to and different from Sigmund Freud's?How was Erik Erikson's approach to personality similar to and different from Sigmund Freud's? What criticisms did humanistic psychologists have about Freudian and Neo-Freudian perspectives on personality? What influenced humanistic psychologists' perspective on personality, and what were their key assumptions?According to Carl Rogers, what are characteristics of a fully-functioning person, and what are some causes of anxiety and defensiveness that make it hard to become a fully functioning person? What did Abraham Maslow mean by a "self-actualized" person, and what are they like? What's the difference between deficiency needs and growth needs?In what sense do Freudian, Neo-Freudian, and Humanistic approaches to personality all rely on narrative truth?What is the difference between a nomothetic approach versus an idiographic approach to studying personality? Provide an example of a nomothetic approach and what we can learn. Provide an example of an idiographic approach and what we can learn from that approach.What is a trait? What are the key assumptions of a nomothetic trait perspective on personality?Briefly describe the development of a trait approach to personality. How did researchers identify traits that were later associated with the Big Five traits that capture personality? Make sure to describe the role of the lexical hypothesis and of factor analysis.Provide a brief personality sketch of someone who scores high on extraversion (extraverts), and of someone who scores low (introverts).Provide a brief personality sketch of someone who scores high on agreeableness, and of someone who scores low.Provide a brief personality sketch of someone who scores high on the trait of conscientiousness, and of someone who scores very low. What behaviors or experiences does conscientiousness predict?Provide a brief personality sketch of someone who scores high on the trait of neuroticism, and of someone who scores very lowProvide a brief personality sketch of someone who scores high on the trait of openness, and of someone who scores very low.In what sense do the Big Five traits qualify as "core traits" as described by Costa and McCrae (1992)?How do Twin Studies help researchers determine the heritability of traits?How is an understanding of the normal curve and normal distribution related to interpreting scores on personality tests?What are three universal human motives, and how is personality related to fulfilling those motives?Briefly describe different kinds of professional psychologists who are interested in personality and personality assessment. Provide concrete examples of how these professionals would use information about people's personalities.The person-situation debated occupied personality and social psychologists during the 1980s and beyond. What were some criticisms of the trait approach? Make sure to mention the difference between strong and weak situations, the use of correlations as "evidence," and the role of behavioral consistency (or the lack thereof) in this debate.How did trait theorists respond to Walter Mischel's situationist critique of personality?In what ways did personality theorists use classic social-psychological experiments to make their case for the power of personality traits?What's the significance of the assertion that in the "real" world, "people choose their situations"? How is this assertion related to the person-situation debate?What did Kurt Lewin mean by "B f(P,S) and how is this "formula" related to the person-situation debate?