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What is 1 + 3?
What is another name for the TCA cycle?
citric acid cycle
When did oxidative phosphorylation evolve?
1-2 billion years ago
Why did oxidative phosphorylation evolve?
O2 became plentiful
What is the purpose of the TCA cycle?
to extract energy from pyruvate
What is unique about the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA?
It is the final common pathway for the oxidation of fuel molecules.
Where does the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA occur in eukaryotes?
Where does the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA occur in aerobic bacteria?
Where does the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA occur in anerobic bacteria?
It dosen't occur.
What is produced by the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA?
acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH
What is used by the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA?
pyruvate + CoA + NAD+
What is the net reaction of the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA?
pyruvate +CoA + NAD+ -> acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH
What two process does the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA?
glycolysis and the TCA cycle
Where in the mitochondria does the formation of acetyl-CoA from pyruvate occur?
What type of reaction is the one that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA?
What enzymes are used to form acetyl-CoA from pyruvate?
pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
Tell me about the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
It is a multi-enzyme complex.
How many enzymes does the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex contain?
What is the purpose of forming enzyme complex?
The close proximity of the enzymes increase the overall rate of reaction and decreases side reaction.
What coenzyme is necessary for the formation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex?
What is vitamin B1?
What is thiamine?
What is a deficiency of thiamine called?
What is beriberi?
a deficiency of thiamine
What does the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex require thiamine?
Thiamine is used to form cofactor TPP.
What is TPP used for?
the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
What is beriberi characterized by?
increase blood pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate levels
Which is more reduced CO2 or an acetyl group?
What type of reactions are the most common in the TCA cycle?
When is oxaloacetate used?
in the TCA cycle
How many NADH are produced by the TCA cycle?
How many FAD are produced?
What is FAD reduced to?
What is NADP+ reduced to?
What is NAD+ reduced to?
When FAD becomes FADH2 is oxidized or reduced?
Alpha-ketoglutarate is found in what step?
What are the reactants of the TCA cycle?
acetyl-CoA + GDP + Pi + FAD + 3NAD+
What are the products of the TCA cycle?
2CO2 + 3NADH + FADH2 + GTP + CoA + 2H+
What is the net reaction of the TCA cycle?
acetyl-CoA + GDP + Pi + FAD + 3NAD+ -> 2CO2 + 3NADH + FADH2 + GTP + CoA + 2H+
NADH can be used to generate how many ATP?
FADH2 can be used to generate how many ATP?
Where is O2 used in the cell?
What is the average length and width of a mitochondria?
1-4 micrometers in length and 0.2-1 micrometers in width
Where do we believe mitochondria and chloroplast come from?
a symbiotic relationship between the cell and a bacteria
Do different cells have different number of mitochondria normally?
How many mitochondria are found in liver cells?
What percent of the volume of a liver cell is the mitochondria?
How do the number of mitochondria in liver cells compare to that of the skeletal muscle cells?
Skeletal muscle cells have more mitochondria then liver cells.
How many membranes are found around a mitochondria?
What are the names of the membranes?
outer membrane and inner membrane
What is another name for cristae?
What is the purpose of the outer membrane?
It encases organelle.
Describe the inner membrane?
It is highly folded.
What is the purpose of the inner membrane?
It divides the interior into two aqueous compartments.
What is the inner compartment called?
What is the matrix?
It is the inner compartment of the mitochondria.
What is the intramembranous space?
the outer compartment of the mitochondria