205 terms

HST314u

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aswan dam
one of the world's largest dams on the Nile River in southern Egypt, It was built in 1956 to control the flooding of the Nile River. The dam gives Egyptian farmers a more dependable source of water for their crops. It also gives Egypt electrical power.
uruk
an ancient Sumerian city in Southern Iraq, near the Euphrates, important before 2000 b.c. : exclusive archaeological excavations, notably of a ziggurat and of tablets with very early Sumerian script.
jemdet nasr
(3100-2900 B.C) 2 major shifts: 1. collapse of colonies in Tigris-Euphrates delta & TRADE reorganized 2. intensifying URANIZATION
kush
An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 100 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.
nubia
an ancient region of northeastern Africa (southern Egypt and northern Sudan) on the Nile
waterfowl
freshwater aquatic bird
elephantine
of great mass, The size of an elephant; enormous size/strength
the late predynastic era
3500-3000 bce
the naqada II period
prelude to civilization, 3500-3000 bce
naqada II
3500-3200BC - more widespread than Naqada I; substantial settlements - Naqada and Hierakonpolis; burais are much more elaborate, indicating beginning of hierarchical society
gerzean period
Gerzean Period (3600-3200 BC)
-Chiefdoms all up and down the Nile
-Cuneiform writing on papyrus paper about dynastic history
-Mud brick wall complexes = defense mechanisms
naqada iii
3200-3100BC - proto-dynastic period; precedes unification of Egypt; population moved into towns which acquired walls; earliest known hieroglyphics appear towards end of period; more social status and wealth differentiation
dynasty 0
Dynasty right before dynasties first established; before 3100 BCE
naqada i
4000-3500BC in Upper Egypt; much like Badarian; most evidence comes from cemeteries
naqada
A settlement with several adjacent large cemeteries (containing about 3000 predynastic graves) excavated by the British archaeologist Sir Flinders Petrie in the 1890's. Most of these graves belong to the times span following the Badarian and before the earliest Egyptian dynasty.
hierakonpolis
the site in upper Egypt of one of the most ancient cities in Egypt. Hierakonpolis was probably the capital of one of the kingdoms that preceded the unification of Egypt. The famous Narmer palate was found there. Hierakonpolis continued as an important center throughout Egyptian history., holds earliest record of Egypt, The site in Upper Egypt of one of the most ancient cities in Egypt. Hierakonpolis was probably the capital of one of the kingdoms that preceded the unification of Egypt. The famous "Narmer Palette" was found here. Hierakonpolis continued as an important center throughout Egyptian history., Along with Abydos, one of the two centers of Egypt during the late Predynastic period and teh First Dynasty, city of Horus; perhaps egypts first capital?
omari b
...
maadi
A site near Cairo, dating to around 3650 B.C. The people of Maadi lived in houses made from mud and reed matting and were buried in a cemetery adjoining the settlement in simple pits without any grave goods., A site near Cairo dating to around 3650 BC. tHe people of Maadi lived in houses made of mud and reed matting and were buried in a cemetery adjoining the settlement in simple pits without any grave goods.
nome
an ancient Egyptian district (administrative)
habuba kabira
Uruk colony (Syria) for raw materials and existing merchant networks., Where: Sumerian colony in Syria
When: 3,500-3,100 BC
Excavation: 1969-1975
Characteristics: One of the first colonies known to man, tri-partide architecture, clay cone mosaics, reimchin bricks, and bevel rimmed bowls. Roads paved of potsherds. Distinct residential districts and distinct residential districts.
cylinder seal
a round piece of carved stone that when rolled onto clay produces an image, A cylindrical piece of stone usually about an inch or so in height, decorated with a design in intaglio (incised), so that a raised pattern is left when the seal is rolled over soft clay.
manetho
c. 300B.C. Egyptian priest and advisor who began keeping records of the ancient Egyptian kings, an Egyptian historian who believed that Menes was the fist king of Egypt. He said that Menes ruled 62 years and was killed by a hippo!
menes
king of upper egypt united the two kingdoms of upper and lower egypt, (3100? BCE) King of Upper Egypt, united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt
memphis
an ancient city of Egypt on the Nile (south of Cairo), The capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near the head of the Nile Delta. Early rulers were interred in the nearby pyramids. (p. 43)
palermo stone
pre-dynastic divine kings to horus to dynastic human kings like Aha, first record of a theatrical performance in Egypt, dating back to about 2000 B.C. describes 3-day performance by I-Kher-Wofet of Abydos, Kings List found from 5th dynasty (2300 BC), one of the earliest genut texts found. Record of individual years from unification until present-day
hor-aha
Name
The commonly-used name Hor-Aha is a rendering of the pharaoh's Horus-name, an element of the royal titulary associated with the god Horus, and is more fully given as Horus-Aha.[1]

For the Early Dynastic Period, the archaeological record refers to the pharaohs by their Horus-names, while the historical record, as evidenced in the Turin and Abydos king lists, uses an alternative royal titulary, the nebty-name.[1][2] The different titular elements of a pharaoh's name were often used in isolation, for brevity's sake, although the choice varied according to circumstance and period.[2]

Mainstream Egyptological consensus follows the findings of Petrie in reconciling the two records and connects Hor-Aha (archaeological) with the nebty-name Ity (historical).[1][2][3]

The same process has led to the identification of the historical Menes (a nebty-name) with the Narmer (a Horus-name) evidenced in the archaeological record (both figures are credited with the unification of Egypt and as the first pharaoh of Dynasty I) as the predecessor of Hor-Aha (the second pharaoh).[1][2][3]
turin canon
Papyrus document, preserved in Turin Italy, Contains data on 80-90 kings up to the reign of Ramses II (1304-1237)
scorpion macehead
an artifact that supports the theory of the Scorpion King and shows him wearing the white crown and reconstruction suggest he may be wearing the red crown as well, flimsy evidence of the Scorpion King uniting Egypt. This is the macehead which was incomplete.
rosette
an ornament or pattern resembling a rose that is worn as a badge of office or as recognition of having won an honor
narmer
Egyptian King who is believed to have brought 2 Egyptian Kingdoms together., King of Upper Egypt about 3000 BC. Conquered lower Egypt and set up first government that ruled all Egypt. Built captial at Memphis. First Egyptian dynasty.
horus
Egyptian falcon-headed solar god, the falcon- He was the son of Isis and Osiris, shown with the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The pharaohs were thought to represent Horus on earth.
narmer palette
an artifact which supports the theory that Narmer unified Egypt because it shows him wearing both the white and red crown, is a significant Egyptian archeological find, dating from about the 31st century BC, the palette is an artistic palette. It is representative of the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the king Narmer who pulled a political cue. He is wearing the upper Egypt crown and killing the wearer of the lower Egypt crown. It also shows the city and country dwellers under his rule.
what does aha mean?
warrior
horus name
(ka name) represent the earthly embodiment of Pharaoh as Horus, the first usualy written in a Serekh alluding to the king as the true reprsentative of Horus on ear, Written in a serekh, which is a paneled rectangle symbolizing the facade of the royal palace, with Horus (falcon) perched on time
serekh
rectangular frame the Horus name is written in, Name of a hieroglyphic symbol in the shape of a rectangle, representing the façade of the king's palace., type of cartouche, shows that it is royal. And image of the royal palace showing both floor plan and elevation
nebty
two ladies
scorpion king
a king of Egypt that came before Narmer, The Egyptian King who united Northern and Southern Egypt in 3200 B.C.; was not an official king, possible king who unified Egypt, evidence = scorpion macehead
pharaonic
of or relating to the ancient Egyptian kings
hieroglyphika grammata
sacred carved letters
stelae
an ancient upright stone slab bearing markings
abydos
an ancient Greek colony on the Asiatic side of the Dardanelles, is the common English name of one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, and also of the eight Upper Nome of which it was the capital city, considered one of the most important archaeological sites of Ancient Egypt, the sacred city of Abydos was the site of many ancient temples where early pharaohs were entombed. These tombs began to be seen as extremely significant burials and in later times it became desirable to be buried in the area, leading to the growth of the town's importance as a cult site, this is a burial town and a pilgrimage town.
rebus writing
Pictures and/or pictographs representing words and syllables with the same or similar sound as the object depicted, a system that uses a single picture to represent two or more words that sound the same(i c u)
rebus
a puzzle where you decode a message consisting of pictures representing syllables and words, representation of words in the form of pictures or symbols; puzzle in which pictures or letters stand for words; Ex. ``R U 18'' is a rebus for ``Are you 18''.
hieratic
a cursive form of Egyptian hieroglyphics
demotic
System of ancient Egyptian writing, simpler than hieroglyphics, that was developed for everyday use
this
Thinis or This (Egyptian: Tjenu) was the capital city of the first dynasties of ancient Egypt. Thinis is, as yet, undiscovered but well attested to by ancient writers, including the classical historian Manetho, who cites it as the centre of the Thinite Confederacy, a tribal confederation whose leader, Menes (or Narmer), united Egypt and was its first pharaoh. Thinis began a steep decline in importance from Dynasty III, when the capital was relocated to Memphis. Its location on the border of the competing Heracleopolitan and Theban dynasties of the First Intermediate Period, and its proximity to certain oases of possible military importance, ensured Thinis some continued signifance in the Old and New Kingdoms. This was a brief respite and Thinis eventually lost its position as a regional administrative centre by the Roman period.

Due to its ancient heritage, Thinis remained a siginificant religious centre, housing the tomb and mummy of the regional deity. In ancient Egyptian religious cosmology, as seen (for example) in the Book of the Dead, Thinis played a role as a mythical place in heaven.[1]

Although the precise location of Thinis is unknown, mainstream Egyptological consensus places it in the vicinity of ancient Abydos and modern Girga.[2][3][4]
khentiamentiu
formost of the westernersKhenti-Amentiu, also Khentiamentiu, Khenti-Amenti, Kenti-Amentiu and many other spellings, is a divine name or title from Ancient Egyptian mythology. It means 'Foremost of the Westerners' or 'Chief or the Westerners', where 'Westerners' refers to the dead.[1]
Khenti-Amentiu was the name of a jackal-headed deity, most likely associated with Anubis, at Abydos in Upper Egypt, who stood guard over the city of the dead. This god is attested early at Abydos, perhaps even earlier than the unification of Egypt at the start of the Old Kingdom period. The name appears on the necropolis seals for the first dynasty pharaohs Den and Qa'a, and a temple dating back to pre-dynastic times was founded in Abydos for this god.[2]
The Abydos area is also associated with Osiris, and with Wepwawet who was a wolf- or jackal-headed god of nearby Sayawt (Asyut, Lycopolis).
As early as the Old Kingdom, Khenti-Amentiu is associated with Osiris (see Eye of Horus).
At times Khenti-Amentiu was associated with Yinepu (Anubis), who is also jackal-headed and is associated with Wepwawet in various ways.
It is unclear whether Khenti-Amentiu was originally the name or title of a separate god, or has always simply been the epithet of one of the more well-known gods.
[edit]
osiris
Egyptian god of the underworld and judge of the dead
nomarch
governors of the nomes, A governor that was head of each nome and was responsible to the king and vizier during the Old Kingdom.
regnal
reign
king djer
3rd King of Dynasty
-Sent Egyptian soldiers on one expeditions
-Wins in battle
meritneith
Merneith (Meritnit, Meryet-Nit or Meryt-Neith) was a consort and a regent of Ancient Egypt during the first dynasty. She may have been a ruler of Egypt in her own right. The possibility is based on several official records. Her rule occurred the thirtieth century B.C., for an undetermined period of time. Merneith's name means Beloved by Neith and her stela contains symbols of that deity. She was Djet's senior royal wife and the mother of Den.[1]
horus sekhemib
"powerful at heart"
seth
evil beast-headed Egyptian god with high square ears and a long snout, (Old Testament) third son of Adam and Eve, God of chaos
what did horus sekhemib change his name to?
seth peribsen
seth peribsen
"hope of all hearts"
peribsen's successor?
horus khasekhem
horus khasekhem
"the powerful one [horus] appears"
khasekhemwy
"the two powerful ones appear"
ma'at
the Egyptian concept of truth, justice, and cosmic order, represented by a goddess, often portrayed with a feather upon her head, Egyptian term for the concept of divinely created and maintained order in the universe. Reflecting the ancient Egyptians' belief in an essentially beneficent world, the divine ruler was the earthly guarantor of this order. (See also pyramid.) (p. 42)
re
ancient hawk-headed Egyptian sun god
Ma'at was personified as a _____, the daughter of the sun god _____.
goddess, re
black land
An ancient Egyptian term for the area long the Nile that was flooded. Because of the silt carried by the river, the annual flood acted both to moisturize and fertilize the ground, providing the basis for the very productive Egyptian agriculture
red land
the name the Egyptians gave the desert land beyond the river valley because it was dry and lifeless
nilometer
lines that are used to predict the level of the water when the Nile flood, A stone tool used to measure the yearly flood level of the Nile
osiris
Egyptian god of the underworld and judge of the dead
isis
Egyptian goddess of fertility, the perfect mother- She was the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus, the most famous family in Egyptian mythology., Egyptian goddess who appealed especially to women. She promised life after death to people who were faithful
horus
the falcon- He was the son of Isis and Osiris, shown with the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The pharaohs were thought to represent Horus on earth.
uraeus
An Egyptian cobra; one of the emblems of pharaonic kingship., the royal cobra found on the nemes, are presentation of a sacred serpent as an emblem of supreme power, worn on the headdresses of ancient Egyptian deites/soverigns
nemes
In ancient Egypt, the linen headdress worn by the pharaoh, with the uraeus cobra of kingship on the front., in ancient Egypt, the linen headdress worn by the Pharaoh, with the Uraeus cobra of kingship on the front
praenomen
This is a king's first cartouche name, which he adopted on his accession; also called the "throne name." It consists of a statement about the god Ra.
nomen
personal name the king was given at birth
cartouche
An oval shape inside which a pharaoh's name was inscribed in hieroglyphics. These are often seen on tomb walls. Now people can buy cartouche jewelry with their names in hieroglyphics
ka
an Egyptian concept referring to one's life force
dessicate
to dry out; to remove moisture
natron
a naturally occurring white chemical substance that was used in the mummification process as a dehydrating agent' salt/egypt
antiseptic
a substance that destroys micro-organisms that carry disease without harming body tissues
ba
an Egyptian spiritual concept that can be roughly translated as one's soul. The ba was often depicted as a bird with a human head.
akh
immortality of deceased, totally separated from bodily remains, doesn't have to live in tomb, dwells amid the stars (circumpolar stars), ibis bird (water heron)
akhet
usually rendered horizon
mastaba
an ancient Egyptian mudbrick tomb with a rectangular base and sloping sides and flat roof
hathor
the cow or the lovely lady- She represents dancing, music, joy, and love. She was shown as a cow to represent motherly love.
thoth
Egyptian ibis-headed moon deity.... god of writing and knowledge
ibis
wading birds of warm regions having long slender down-curved bills
sobek
crocodile god; water god associated with fertility
sekhmet
fierce martial goddess who could also ward off pestilence; a lioness
atum
solar diety
ptah
god of memphis and patron of craftsmen
khepri
a solar diety in the form of a scarab beetle
atum
the creator god, human form of the Egyptian sun god
scarab beetle
dung beetle
cosmotheism
the belief that identifies God with the cosmos
heliopolis
Heliopolis meaning sun-city, also known as Ain Shams (literally "Eye of the Sun or Center of the Sun" in Arabic or a slight Change of its Hieroglyphic name "Oon" or "Iunu"), was one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt. Located in the apex of the Nile Delta, Heliopolis was the capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome.
memphite theology
as creator god of the city of Memphis Ptah creates the world through conceiving of creation in his mind Sia and through the act of speech Hu by first uttering the names of things
amun
god of air and wind, fertility god, creator of all things, a bearded man or ram headed, believed to be the physical father of all pharoahs, King of the gods
amun-re
God of the sun, sailed across the heavens. considered King of gods
transliteration
writing words from one language in another language's alphabet
pylon
a large vertical steel tower supporting high-tension power lines, The wide entrance gateway of an Egyptian temple, characterized by its sloping walls
hypostyle hall
a hall with a roof supported by columns, a large interior room characterized by many closely spaced columns that support its roof.
sympathetic magic
rituals in which doing something to an image of an object produces the desired effect in the real object, based on a few principles: things that look the same can have a physical influence on each other; things once in contact continue to act upon each other even at great distances; another idea is that by somehow creating the image, the creator gains the traits of the being
heb-sed
a jubilee festival when the king took a ceremonial run around a race course, a jubilee festival celebrating the reconsecration of the pharaoh's rule
opet-festival
Festival dedicated to Amun. Procession between Karnak and Luxor temples, a festival where they celebrate the flooding of the Nile River
bes
the short and fat god- He was very popular as he guarded children from evil spirits. He enjoyed singing and dancing; aka god of family.
tauret
Tauret was a predynastic hippopotamus-goddess of pregnant women and childbirth. She was also a mother-goddess who wore the solar disk and cow's horns to symbolize how she helped in the daily rebirth of the sun. She was even called the Eye of Re, his daughter, and the mother of Osiris and Isis.

Tauret was portrayed as a pregnant female hippopotamus with large human breasts, the hind legs of a lion and the tail of a crocodile. She is shown standing on her hind legs and leaning on the symbol for "protection" and holding an ankh.

Tauret was a domestic deity that was greatly revered. Her most common role was as a protectoress of pregnant women. She was often shown with Bes in the birth chamber and she was a prominent assistant at the birth of Hatshepsut.

Tauret acquired an evil reputation because she was said to have been the concubine of Seth. When she sided with Horus in their dispute over who was the rightful claimant to the throne of Egypt following the death of Osiris she showed her kinder nature.
the old kingdom
was a period in Egyptain history that lasted for about 500 years, from about 2700 to 2200 BC
sanakhte
Sanakht(e), generally identified with the Nebka of much later king lists, was probably either the first or second pharaoh of the Third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. The dates assigned to his reign by Shaw are ca. 2686-2667 BC; for various conjectures of other scholars, see the Ancient Egypt History and Chronology. Sanakht's name means strong protection.
djoser
Pharoh who had the first pyramid built for him
imhotep
Name of the architect who designed the Step Pyramid, the real person- He was a brilliant scribe and architect who designed the first pyramid, Zoser's Step pyramid. He was later worshipped as the god of wisdom.
huni
5th king of Dynasty 3 king, Old Kingdom, ruled for 24 years, died without a son, his daughter, Hetepheres, married Snefru. He built 7-8 small step pyramids along the Nile
snefru
Pharoah for whom the first the first true pyramid was built, he built 3 pyramids; the true pyramid, the bent pyramid, the pyramid at meydum
khufu
the egyptian pharoh who in about 2250 b.c. ordered the construction of the largest pyramid.
akhet khufu
"Khufu's Horizon", Khufu's tomb
saqqara
Cemetary near Memphis where important officials were buried in mastaba tombs, the predecessors of the pyramids. The earliest pyramid, the Third Dynasty step-pyramid of Djoser, essentially several successively smaller mastabas stacked one upon the other, is at Saqqara.
giza
an ancient Egyptian city on the west bank of the Nile opposite Cairo
corvee
forced labor that required peasants to work for a month out of the year on roads and other public projects
lintel
horizontal beam used as a finishing piece over a door or window
djedefre
Djedefre (also known as Radjedef) was an Egyptian pharaoh, the son and immediate successor of Khufu. The mother of Djedefre is unknown. His name means "Enduring like Re."[3] Djedefre was the first king to use the title Son of Ra as part of his royal titulary, which is seen as an indication of the growing popularity of the cult of the solar god Ra.
He married his (half-) sister Hetepheres II, which may have been necessary to legitimise his claims to the throne if his mother was one of Khufu's lesser wives. He also had another wife, Khentetka with whom he had (at least) three sons, Setka, Baka and Hernet, and one daughter, Neferhetepes.[4] These children are attested to by statuary fragments found in the ruined mortuary temple adjoining the pyramid. Various fragmentary statues of Khentetka were found in this ruler's mortuary temple at Abu Rawash.[5] Abu Rawash actually sits at an elevation higher than the rest of Giza, making it the highest, albeit not the tallest, pyramid. Some historians claim that the "pyramid" at Abu Rawash isn't even a pyramid at all; instead, it may be a "sun temple." Archeaologist Vassil Dobrev has claimed that it may not even be Djedefre's. Excavations by the French team under Michel Valloggia have recently added another potential daughter, Hetepheres, as well as a son, Nikaudjedefre, to this list.
khafre
Gizeh, Egypt. 4th dynasty, ca. 2500 BCE, diorite. Depicts Khafre as an enthroned divine ruler with a perfect body. Rigidity of the pose creates the effect of an eternal stillness, appropriate for the timeless afterlife.
menkaure
after Khufu; built the third and smallest pyramid at Giza
shepseskaf
mastaba tomb
looks like a benchShepseskaf was a son of Menkaure and grandson of Khafra, but his mother's name is not known. His mother can be either Khamerernebty II or Rekhetre. It's possible that Shepseskaf's wife was Khentkaus I, but this is far from certain.
Queen Bunefer has been suggested as a possible wife of Shepseskaf based on the titles as a priestess of Shepseskhaf. She may however have been a daughter who served as a priestess in the cult for her father instead. Khamaat, the wife of a nobleman named Ptahshepses, may be a daughter of Shepseskhaf or Userkaf.[3]
userkaf
first king of dynasty 5
first to build sun temples to ReUserkaf was the founder of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt and the first pharaoh to start the tradition of building sun temples at Abusir.[2] His name means "his Ka (or soul) is powerful".[3] He ruled from 2494-2487 BC[1] and constructed the Pyramid of Userkaf complex at Saqqara.
khentkawes
It is unknown who were her parents. She had a title "king's daughter of his body" which means she was a daughter of one king.[1] It is unknown who was her father, but this is maybe pharaoh Khafra. His son Menkaura had a daughter, Khentkaus I. Thus Princess Khentkaus was possibly a daughter of Khafra and aunt of Khentkaus I.
sahure
2nd king of dynasty 5
built sun temple and pyramid
conducted long distance trade
earliest seafaring ship
pepi ii
reign of supposedly 94 years
small alabaster statues
ambitious provincial governors
rough pyramid
statue on mother's lap, ruled for 90 years, since age 6, Ruled Egypt for 94 years; Old man; Nomarchs started a Civil War
manetho
an Egyptian historian who believed that Menes was the fist king of Egypt. He said that Menes ruled 62 years and was killed by a hippo!
turin canon
Papyrus document, preserved in Turin Italy, Contains data on 80-90 kings up to the reign of Ramses II (1304-1237)
nitiqret
Nitocris (Greek: Νίτωκρις) has been claimed to have been the last pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty. Her name is found in the Histories of Herodotus and writings of Manetho but her historicity is questionable. She might have been an interregnum queen. If she is in fact a historical person, then she may be the sister of King Merenre and the daughter of Pepi II and Queen Neith.[1]
vintner
someone who makes wine
inundation
the rising of a body of water and its overflowing onto normally dry land
the edwin surgical papyrus
Egyptian medical papyri are ancient Egyptian texts written on papyrus which permit a glimpse at medical procedures and practices in ancient Egypt. The papyri give details on disease, diagnosis, and remedies of disease, which include herbal remedies, surgery, and magical spells. It is thought there were more medical papyri, but many have been lost due to grave robbing. The largest study of the medical papyri to date has been undertaken by Berlin University and was titled Medizin der alten Ägypter ("Medicine of ancient Egypt").[1]
Early Egyptian medicine was based mostly on a mixture of magic and religious spells. Most commonly "cured" by use of amulets or magical spells, the illnesses were thought to be caused by spiteful behavior or actions. Afterwards, doctors performed various medical treatments if necessary. The instructions for these medical rituals were later inscribed on papyrus scrolls by the priests performing the actions. [2]
the egyptian middle kingdom
2200-1550 bce
hyksos
the people who invaded Egypt thus beginning the second Intermediate period during which the Hyksos ( a word meaning "foreigner) ruled as pharaohs in Lower Egypt and exacted tribute from the royal families in Thebes.
nomarch
A governor that was head of each nome and was responsible to the king and vizier during the Old Kingdom.
magnate
a very wealthy or powerful businessman
nebhetepre mentuhotep ii
Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II (2061 BC - 2010 BC) was a Pharaoh of the 11th dynasty, the son of Intef III of Egypt and a minor queen called Iah. His own wife was the 'king's mother' Tem. Other wives were Neferu (his sister) and several secondary wives, one or more who it has been suggested were possibly Nubian,[3][4] buried in his funerary complex. His only known son was Mentuhotep III.
The king changed his name several times during his reign, perhaps reflecting important political events. His throne name was Nebhepetre, and he was the first ruler of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. The Turin Canon credits him with a reign of 51 years.[5]
In the 14th year of his reign, an uprising occurred. This was probably connected with the conflict between Mentuhotep II based in Thebes and the rival 10th dynasty based at Herakleopolis Magna.
During his reign, Mentuhotep was able to reunite ancient Egypt for the first time since the 6th dynasty. The exact date when reunification was achieved is not known, but it is assumed to have happened shortly before year 39 of his reign.[6]
Mentuhotep II led military campaigns south into Nubia, which had gained its independence during the First Intermediate Period. There is also evidence of military actions against Canaan. The king reorganized the country and placed a vizier at the head of the administration. The viziers of his reign were Bebi and Dagi. His treasurer was Khety who was involved in organising the sed festival for the king. Other important officials were the treasurer Meketre and the overseer of sealers Meru. His general was Intef
Mentuhotep II was buried in a large tomb he had constructed at Deir el-Bahri. Mentuhotep II built temples and chapels at several places in Upper Egypt. These places include Denderah, Abydos, Armant and Gebelein.[7]
Mentuhotep II was considered by his subjects to be half divine, half mortal. This tradition continued under his successors.[citation needed]
temple of amun
ca. 1575-1075 BCE, Karnak, Egypt, Egyptian, largest surviving Egyptian temple complex and containing all the components of later Egyptian temples
karnak
Great temple of Amen at Thebes, the largest complex of religious buildings in the World
cenotaph
a memorial tomb established for an individual who is actually buried elsewhere.
hypostyle
a large hall with numerous columns supporting the structure; only entered by priests or pharaohs
mentuhotep iii
Mentuhotep II's son
amenemhet i
established new kingdom and 12th dynasty; bragged that none were hungry and all were at peace and cared for during his reign, Vizier (prime minister); established 12th Dynasty; adopted 3 important measures. Established new capital (Ithet Taui) and could better control lower Egypt. Made his son co-regent.
senusret i
Who ruled during the Middle Kingdom and his finest achievement was the White Chapel?, a pharaoh that ruled during the Middle Kingdom period whose greatest accomplishments were in religious architecture including the White Chapel; he encouraged Egyptian art and literature.
bellows
a mechanical device that blows air onto a fire to make it burn more fiercely
sesostris
Sesostris was the name of a legendary king of ancient Egypt who led a military expedition into parts of Europe, as related by Herodotus.
Herodotus cited a story told by Egyptian priests about a Pharaoh Sesostris, who once led an army northward through Syria and Turkey all the way to Colchis, westward across Southern Russia, and then south again through Romania, until he reached Bulgaria and the Eastern part of Greece. Sesostris then returned home the same way he came, leaving colonists behind at the Colchian river Phasis. Herodotus cautioned the reader that much of this story came second hand via Egyptian priests, but also noted that the Colchians were commonly known to be Egyptian colonists.[1]
According to Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus (who calls him Sesoösis), and Strabo, he conquered the whole world, even Scythia and Ethiopia, divided Egypt into administrative districts or nomes, was a great law-giver, and introduced a caste system into Egypt and the worship of Serapis.
Herodotus claims Sesostris was the father of the blind king Pheron, who was less warlike than his father.
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diorite
A rock: igneous, has a moderate amount of dark silicates and has a coarse-grained texture.
graywacke
arenaceous sedimentary rock w/ angular particles suspended in a more than 15% silt-clay matrix; oft. dark gray or green, A sandstone composed of a heterogeneous mixture of rock fragments and angular grains of quartz and feldspar, the sand grains being surrounded by a fine-grained clay matrix.
bas-relief
sculpture whose ornament or figures are somewhat raised above the background
circumpolar
(of a celestial body) continually visible above the horizon during the entire 360 degrees of daily travel, A term describing a star that neither rises nor sets but appears to rotate around one of the celestial poles.
shabtis
Statues of servants buried in the tomb. The purpose was to serve the master and do do tasks Osiris asks of you.
scarab
a beetle shaped ornament. The beetle was sacred to the Egyptians. It represented rebirth.
heart scarab
inscribed with a spell preventing the heart from testifying against the deceased at the judgement
montu
War god; often has head of a hawk, with sun disk and two plumes on top
min
an Egyptian god of procreation
shabti
magical figurine, servant of the deceased which would carry out the work needed in the afterlife
khnum
One of the original deities (gods) of ancient Egypt, god of the floodgates of the Nile. Had the head of a ram.
calumniate
charge falsely or with malicious intent, (v.) to slander; to accuse falsely and maliciously
qadesh
Syrian goddess of sacred ecstasy and sexual pleasure
Depicted as a naked woman
Often linked to Hathor
hathor
the cow or the lovely lady- She represents dancing, music, joy, and love. She was shown as a cow to represent motherly love., goddess of LOVE, cow's head; goddess of love and childbirth
knossos
an ancient town on Crete where Bronze Age culture flourished from about 2000 BC to 1400 BC, The capital of the ancient Minoan civilization; located on the island of Crete off the coast of present-day Greece.
griffin
winged monster with an eagle-like head and body of a lion, a mythical animal typically having the head, forepart, and wings of an eagle and the body, hind legs, and tail of a lion
mitanni
Group in Syria who were conquered by Tuthmose III in Dynasty 18 at the battle of Megiddo, Egyptian Rival that threatened to take control of Syria before the Battle of Megiddo fought by Thutmose, at which they were defeated. Amenhotep III then married their Princess to cement the peace.
mursili i
..
hattusa
capitol of Hittite Empire
hatti
homeland of the Hittites, name of it created the name Hittites
tudhaliya i
...
the hittite new kingdom
...
hittologist
...
suppiluliuma i
the greatest of the hittite kings. became king only after overthrowing and killing his older brother who had briefly succeeded their father on the throne.
wassukanni
the mitannian capital. mitanni
mursili ii
...
muwatalli ii
...
seti i
part of the 19th Dynasty; believed he ordered the deaths of the first born males
ahhiyawa
The name of the people the Hittite's made diplomatic contacts with and battled militarily. They are believed the be the Hittite's name for "Achaeans" or "Greeks"
wilusa
...
ramesses ii
A long-lived ruler of New Kingdom Egypt (r. 1290-1224 B.C.E.). He reached an accommodation with the Hittites of Anatolia after a standoff in battle at Kadesh in Syria. He built on a grand scale throughout Egypt. (p. 68)
fjord
a long narrow inlet of the sea between steep cliffs
urhi-teshub
renamed himself mursili iii
hattusili
king of the Hittites who was temporarlily embroiled in a civil war for the throne with his nephew Urhi-Tessub, though he was the eventual winner. He is also known for his treaty wiht Egypt under Ramesses II, settling the conflict between them.
hattusili iii
1250 Hittite king. Usurped throne. Signs Qadesh treaty with Ramesses II, 15 years after Muwatalli owns Ramesses II at Qadesh.
armistice
a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms
adad-nirari i
1300 Assyrian king. Hittites weaken after Supiluliuma, so A-D turns core of Mittani state into Assyrian vassal province. Diplomatic relations arise with Hittites.
shalmaneser i
...
ugarit
An ancient city of the Canaanites which was discovered in 1928. Many texts were found there, from which scholars have learned a great deal about the Canaanite religion.
tudhaliya iv
...
heinrich schliemann
German archaeologist who discovered nine superimposed city sites of Troy, a German businessman-turned-archeologist, who was convinced that certain Greek legends were based on historical events; he focused his search on the legends of the Trojan War and its heroes described in the works of Homer; in 1870, Schliemann found the site of Troy on the west coast of Turkey, and, in 1876, he located Mycenae in the northeast of the Peloponnese (the peninsula below the isthmus of Corinth which forms the southern part of Greece)
the battle of qadesh
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emmer
an old kind of Eurasian wheat with bearded ears and spikelets that contain two grains
levirate
the biblical institution whereby a man must marry the widow of his childless brother in order to maintain the brother's line
tawanannas
hittite queen.. title
telepinu
...
hurrian
ergative-agglutinative language, that adpoted Akkadian cuneiform for writing, not related to surrounding IE and Semitic languages, but clearly a relative of Urartian, a later language
naram-sin
the grandson of Sargon I who conquered the Lullubi people of the Zagros and reunified the Akkadian cities (2255-2218 BCE)
hypostyle
a hall in an egyptian temple that has a roof supported by a dense thicket of columns
the great hypostyle hall
...
cartouche
An oval shape inside which a pharaoh's name was inscribed in hieroglyphics. These are often seen on tomb walls. Now people can buy cartouche jewelry with their names in hieroglyphics
marshalling
An equitable principle used to rank and prioritize the rights of competing parties to determine the order in which the mortgaged property will be sold.
ptah
National god and patron of artists and craftsmen
hathor
Goddess of love and joy
victory stele
...merneptah crushed revolt and opposition in palestine and syria..
truculent
defiantly aggressive
benefaction
an act intending or showing kindness and good will
cypriot
a native or inhabitant of Cyprus
sanguine
inclined to a healthy reddish color often associated with outdoor life
sanguinary
marked by eagerness to resort to violence and bloodshed
arrears
an unpaid overdue debt

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