Thinis or This (Egyptian: Tjenu) was the capital city of the first dynasties of ancient Egypt. Thinis is, as yet, undiscovered but well attested to by ancient writers, including the classical historian Manetho, who cites it as the centre of the Thinite Confederacy, a tribal confederation whose leader, Menes (or Narmer), united Egypt and was its first pharaoh. Thinis began a steep decline in importance from Dynasty III, when the capital was relocated to Memphis. Its location on the border of the competing Heracleopolitan and Theban dynasties of the First Intermediate Period, and its proximity to certain oases of possible military importance, ensured Thinis some continued signifance in the Old and New Kingdoms. This was a brief respite and Thinis eventually lost its position as a regional administrative centre by the Roman period.
Due to its ancient heritage, Thinis remained a siginificant religious centre, housing the tomb and mummy of the regional deity. In ancient Egyptian religious cosmology, as seen (for example) in the Book of the Dead, Thinis played a role as a mythical place in heaven.
Although the precise location of Thinis is unknown, mainstream Egyptological consensus places it in the vicinity of ancient Abydos and modern Girga.
formost of the westernersKhenti-Amentiu, also Khentiamentiu, Khenti-Amenti, Kenti-Amentiu and many other spellings, is a divine name or title from Ancient Egyptian mythology. It means 'Foremost of the Westerners' or 'Chief or the Westerners', where 'Westerners' refers to the dead.
Khenti-Amentiu was the name of a jackal-headed deity, most likely associated with Anubis, at Abydos in Upper Egypt, who stood guard over the city of the dead. This god is attested early at Abydos, perhaps even earlier than the unification of Egypt at the start of the Old Kingdom period. The name appears on the necropolis seals for the first dynasty pharaohs Den and Qa'a, and a temple dating back to pre-dynastic times was founded in Abydos for this god.
The Abydos area is also associated with Osiris, and with Wepwawet who was a wolf- or jackal-headed god of nearby Sayawt (Asyut, Lycopolis).
As early as the Old Kingdom, Khenti-Amentiu is associated with Osiris (see Eye of Horus).
At times Khenti-Amentiu was associated with Yinepu (Anubis), who is also jackal-headed and is associated with Wepwawet in various ways.
It is unclear whether Khenti-Amentiu was originally the name or title of a separate god, or has always simply been the epithet of one of the more well-known gods.
Djedefre (also known as Radjedef) was an Egyptian pharaoh, the son and immediate successor of Khufu. The mother of Djedefre is unknown. His name means "Enduring like Re." Djedefre was the first king to use the title Son of Ra as part of his royal titulary, which is seen as an indication of the growing popularity of the cult of the solar god Ra.
He married his (half-) sister Hetepheres II, which may have been necessary to legitimise his claims to the throne if his mother was one of Khufu's lesser wives. He also had another wife, Khentetka with whom he had (at least) three sons, Setka, Baka and Hernet, and one daughter, Neferhetepes. These children are attested to by statuary fragments found in the ruined mortuary temple adjoining the pyramid. Various fragmentary statues of Khentetka were found in this ruler's mortuary temple at Abu Rawash. Abu Rawash actually sits at an elevation higher than the rest of Giza, making it the highest, albeit not the tallest, pyramid. Some historians claim that the "pyramid" at Abu Rawash isn't even a pyramid at all; instead, it may be a "sun temple." Archeaologist Vassil Dobrev has claimed that it may not even be Djedefre's. Excavations by the French team under Michel Valloggia have recently added another potential daughter, Hetepheres, as well as a son, Nikaudjedefre, to this list.
Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II (2061 BC - 2010 BC) was a Pharaoh of the 11th dynasty, the son of Intef III of Egypt and a minor queen called Iah. His own wife was the 'king's mother' Tem. Other wives were Neferu (his sister) and several secondary wives, one or more who it has been suggested were possibly Nubian, buried in his funerary complex. His only known son was Mentuhotep III.
The king changed his name several times during his reign, perhaps reflecting important political events. His throne name was Nebhepetre, and he was the first ruler of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. The Turin Canon credits him with a reign of 51 years.
In the 14th year of his reign, an uprising occurred. This was probably connected with the conflict between Mentuhotep II based in Thebes and the rival 10th dynasty based at Herakleopolis Magna.
During his reign, Mentuhotep was able to reunite ancient Egypt for the first time since the 6th dynasty. The exact date when reunification was achieved is not known, but it is assumed to have happened shortly before year 39 of his reign.
Mentuhotep II led military campaigns south into Nubia, which had gained its independence during the First Intermediate Period. There is also evidence of military actions against Canaan. The king reorganized the country and placed a vizier at the head of the administration. The viziers of his reign were Bebi and Dagi. His treasurer was Khety who was involved in organising the sed festival for the king. Other important officials were the treasurer Meketre and the overseer of sealers Meru. His general was Intef
Mentuhotep II was buried in a large tomb he had constructed at Deir el-Bahri. Mentuhotep II built temples and chapels at several places in Upper Egypt. These places include Denderah, Abydos, Armant and Gebelein.
Mentuhotep II was considered by his subjects to be half divine, half mortal. This tradition continued under his successors.
Sesostris was the name of a legendary king of ancient Egypt who led a military expedition into parts of Europe, as related by Herodotus.
Herodotus cited a story told by Egyptian priests about a Pharaoh Sesostris, who once led an army northward through Syria and Turkey all the way to Colchis, westward across Southern Russia, and then south again through Romania, until he reached Bulgaria and the Eastern part of Greece. Sesostris then returned home the same way he came, leaving colonists behind at the Colchian river Phasis. Herodotus cautioned the reader that much of this story came second hand via Egyptian priests, but also noted that the Colchians were commonly known to be Egyptian colonists.
According to Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus (who calls him Sesoösis), and Strabo, he conquered the whole world, even Scythia and Ethiopia, divided Egypt into administrative districts or nomes, was a great law-giver, and introduced a caste system into Egypt and the worship of Serapis.
Herodotus claims Sesostris was the father of the blind king Pheron, who was less warlike than his father.