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Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II (2061 BC - 2010 BC) was a Pharaoh of the 11th dynasty, the son of Intef III of Egypt and a minor queen called Iah. His own wife was the 'king's mother' Tem. Other wives were Neferu (his sister) and several secondary wives, one or more who it has been suggested were possibly Nubian,[3][4] buried in his funerary complex. His only known son was Mentuhotep III.
The king changed his name several times during his reign, perhaps reflecting important political events. His throne name was Nebhepetre, and he was the first ruler of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. The Turin Canon credits him with a reign of 51 years.[5]
In the 14th year of his reign, an uprising occurred. This was probably connected with the conflict between Mentuhotep II based in Thebes and the rival 10th dynasty based at Herakleopolis Magna.
During his reign, Mentuhotep was able to reunite ancient Egypt for the first time since the 6th dynasty. The exact date when reunification was achieved is not known, but it is assumed to have happened shortly before year 39 of his reign.[6]
Mentuhotep II led military campaigns south into Nubia, which had gained its independence during the First Intermediate Period. There is also evidence of military actions against Canaan. The king reorganized the country and placed a vizier at the head of the administration. The viziers of his reign were Bebi and Dagi. His treasurer was Khety who was involved in organising the sed festival for the king. Other important officials were the treasurer Meketre and the overseer of sealers Meru. His general was Intef
Mentuhotep II was buried in a large tomb he had constructed at Deir el-Bahri. Mentuhotep II built temples and chapels at several places in Upper Egypt. These places include Denderah, Abydos, Armant and Gebelein.[7]
Mentuhotep II was considered by his subjects to be half divine, half mortal. This tradition continued under his successors.[citation needed]
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