Child Development Exam 2 draft
Terms in this set (10)
Executive control functions
The processes involved in regulating attention and determining what to do with information just gathered or retrieved from long-term memory.
Our executive functions are under
voluntary control and what distinguish human information processors from computers.
Human must initiate, organize, and monitor our own cognitive activities. We decide what to attend to; we select our own strategies for retaining and retrieving this input; we call up our own programs for solving problems; and choose the problems that we attempt to solve. Humans areinformation processors. lower-level units (sensations, features of a stimulus) interact and, as a result, organize into higher-order units (a perception, a concept), a phenomenon not too dissimilar from Piaget's idea of how assimilation and accommodation operate to yield more advanced stages of cognitive development.
The sensory store
The first information-processing store in which stimuli are noticed and are brieftly available for further processing
The multistore model system's log-in unit; it holds raw sensory input what you have sensed. Holds info for a milliseconds and than disappear without further processing
The short-term store
Stimuli are retained for severall seconds and operates on ( also called working memory)
you to retain a telephone number for perhaps as long as it takes you to dial it. But unless this information is rehearsed or otherwise operated on, it too is soon lost. The short-term store has also been referred to as working memory, because all conscious intellectual activity is thought to take place here. So short-term, or working, memory has two functions:
(1) to store information temporarily so that
(2) we can do something with it.
The Long-term store
Information that has been examined and interpreted is permaeetly stored for further use
a vast and relatively permanent storehouse of information that includes your knowledge of the world, your impressions of past experiences and events, and the strategies that you use to process information and solve problems.
Aspects of children's information processing that influence all types of thinking:
1. The capacity of the short-term store (hardware);
2. The speed of processing (hardware);
3. children's use of strategies (software);
4. children's understanding of what it means to think (metacognition, or executive functioning) (software);
5. their knowledge base—what children know about the things they are thinking about (related to the four above and influencing nearly all forms of children's thinking);
5. their attention—the process of selecting what environmental stimuli they will bring into the information-processing system.
1. Developmental Differences in "Hardware": Information-Processing Capacity
"Capacity" within an information-processing system can be defined differentlty
It can be
1. the total amount of "space" available to store information, or
2. how long information can be retained in a storage unit, or
3. quickly information can be processed.
1. Development of the Short-Term Store
2. Changes in Processing Speed
Development of the Short-Term Store
The capacity of the short-term store (STS) is assessed by tests of memory span.
Memory span = the number of rapidly presented and unrelated items (for example, digits) that a person can recall in exact order. Age differences in memory span are highly reliable . Memory span is used as one indication of general intelligence on the two most widely used intelligence tests for children.
Short-term memory has even been assessed in infants using looking-time procedures. Results show that the amount of visual information infants can keep in mind at one time increases over the 1st year of life.
What children know about the randomly presented items they are asked to remember affects their memory span.
In a classic study, a group of graduate students were given two simple memory tests. The first was a digit-span task. On a second test they were shown chess pieces on a chess board (about one chess piece per second) and then given the pieces and asked to place them in their previous positions on the board. Their performance on these tasks was compared with that of a group of 10-year-olds- who were all chess experts.
Result: The child experts outperformed the adults when memory for chess pieces was tested. Their performance was limited to what they knew well, because they performed much worse than adults did when their memory for digits was tested.
These findings indicate that having a detailed knowledge base for a particular domain (in this case, chess) facilitates memory performance for information from that domain but not necessarily for information from other areas.
How does being an expert improved memory span?
Answer: The ease of item identification—how quickly the child identifies items to be remembered.
Children who are experts in a domain can rapidly process information in that domain and have an advantage when it comes to memory span. Their speed of item identification is an indication of their domain-specific processing efficiency. Yet, in domains in which they are not experts, older children tend to process most types of information faster than younger children, and faster processing contributes to larger memory spans.
Changes in Processing Speed
It's not just identifying items on memory-span tasks that show age-related improvements in speed of processing.
Also general developmental changes in processing speed are similar across a variety of different problems, ranging from simple tasks in which participants must determine whether the objects in two pictures have the same name to complex mental arithmetic. Pou past experiences and primarlily biological maturation is responsible for broad age-related differences in speed of information processing.
What maturational developments might underlie age-related changes in processing speed?
Answer: Increased myelination of neurons in the associative (thinking) areas of the brain and the elimination of unnecessary (or excess) neural synapses that could interfere with efficient information processing are two possible candidates
2. Developmental Differences in "Software": Strategies and What Children Know About "Thinking"
Age differences in information-processing hardware— which how much children can hold in mind at one time and how quickly they can process information—will clearly influence how effectively they can "think."
people possess a variety of cognitive operations that they apply to information and that both the quantity and quality of these operations change with age.
Cognitive processes vary along a number of dimensions. Some are
1. executed automatically, you not aware that you are thinking. . Others are
2. more conscious and effortful. you would need to use more focused and planful cognitive processes.
These latter types of processes, called strategies, change substantially with age.
1. The Development of Strategies
2. Production and Utilization Deficiencies
3.Multiple-Strategy and Variable-Strategy Use
4.What Children Know About Thinking
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