Horticulture Final Exam Vocab

to cultivate the garden, the culture of garden plants
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Terms in this set (107)
system of classifying plantstaxonomysystem of naming plantsnomenclaturea cultivated variety - a variety created by selection and cultivation by mancultivara flowering plant where the ovary is covered by a fruit structureangiosperma non-flowering plant where the ovary is nakedgymnospermthe fluid inside the cell membrane but outside the nucleus, including the organellescytoplasmthe cell, or plasma membrane of a plant cell composed of a phospholipid bilayerplasmalemmabridge of cytoplasm between adjacent cells which facilitate intercell transportplasmodesmaa network of cytoplasm within many cells connected by plasmodesmatasymplastthe cell wall, nonliving tissue, and intercellular spaces in a complex of cellsapoplastgrowing where they are not normally foundadventitiousa basic tissue made up of only collenchyma, parenchyma, or sclerenchyma cellsground tissuevascular tissue that serves as a transport for food across the plant, up- and downwardsphloemvascular tissue that serves as a transport for water across the plant, only upwardsxylema layer of cork cells which replaces the epidermis and protects the plantperidermfound in dicots, a system with a primary root and secondary tootstap root systemfound in monocots, the primary root is missingfibrous root systemthe phenomenon of a terminal bud inhibiting growth of laters budsapical dominanceon a stem, where buds, leaves, flowers, offshoots, and leaf scars are locatednodethe stalk which connects a leaf to the systempetiolethe whorl containing all of the sepals of a flowercalyxthe whorl containing all of the petals of a flowercorollamale part of a flowerstamenfemale part of a flowerpistila flower containing both male and female whorlsperfecta flower containing all four whorlscompletea species that has a male plant and female plantdioeciousa species that has both male and female parts on the same plantmonoeciousa fruit that's been formed from one flower with many ovariesaggregate fruita fruit that's been formed from many flowers on one inflorescencemultiple fruitthe study of variation of inherited characteristicsgeneticsthe process which turns DNA into usable proteinsgene expressiona variation of a geneallelethe location of a gene in the genomelocusthe set of alleles that an organism has for a traitgenotypea trait that can be put in a categoryqualitative traita trait that has a range of variationquantitative traitthe observed value of the traitphenotypea subdivision of a species based on local adaptationecotypewhere seed from multiple sources is grown in the same placecommon garden studyirreversible increase in the size of the plant which is actively metabolizinggrowththe chemical reactions which turn food into energymetabolismlight which forms a spectrum of wavelengthselectromagnetic radiationthe amount of light available for photosynthesisphotosynthetically active radiationthe duration of the lighted periodphotoperiodtiny fragments of rock combined with decomposed organic mattersoilthe water which drains out of the soil after a watering evengravitational waterafter draining, the amount of water held in the soilfield capacitywater which is help, "captured" by soil particlesbound waterwater that is not held by soil particles and is available for plant uptakeavailable waterthe long-term average of atmospheric conditionsclimatethe current state of atmospheric conditionsweatherthe conditions in a very small areamicroclimatethe condensation of water vapor from the atmosphereprecipitationthe horizontal lines, parallel to the equator, delineating sections of the earthlatitudetypically referring to land, the height above or below sea levelelevationthe physical features of an area of landtopographyone of 16 elements needed for plant growthnutrienta nutrient required in large quantities by plantsmacronutrienta nutrient required in trace amount by plantsmicronutrentwhen there is not enough of a nutrient available to a plantdeficiencywhen a plant uptakes more of a nutrient than it needsluxury consumptionwhen there is so much of a nutrient that it harms the planttoxicitythe process of liquid turning to waterevaporationthe movement of water in the plant ending in evaporation from stomatranspirationthe movement of water in minerals in the planttranslocationthe process of irrigating a plant with water-soluble fertilizerfertigationthe process of removing physiological dormancy from seedstratificationthe process of removing physiological dormancy from seedstratificationthe process of removing mechanical dormancy from seedscarificationthe flowering period of a plantanthesisthe source of pollenpollinizerthe formation of a seed without fertilizationapomixisthe formation of a fruit without seedsparthenocarpywill ripen after harvest and releases ethyleneclimactericwill no ripen after harvest, does not release ethylenenon-climactericprocess by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized celldifferentationuptake of water by a dry seed which will kickstart metabolism and result in germinationimbibitionan early phase in plant growth, from seed germination, during which flowering cannot be inducedjuvenilitythe vector for pollen transferpollinatorthe source of pollen; a plant that provides opllenpollenizerthe condition or process of deterioration with agesenescencehaving a limited shelf life after harvest; will spoil or decay quicklyperishablethe practice of planting different crops sequentially on the same plot of land to improve soil health, optimize nutrients in the soil, and combat weed and pest pressurecrop rotationthe cultivation of different types of plants in close proximity so as to benefit each othercompanion plantinga crop planted to attract insect pests from another crop, especially one in which the pests fail to survive and reproducetrap cropwhen plants give off substances that prevent or prohibit growth of surrounding plantsallelopathyherbaceous annual or perennial plants that are sold for use in flower or vegetable gardensbedding plantsa plant, usually woody or an herbaceous perennial, that is sold with little or no soil on its rootsbare-roota portion of a stem, leaf, or root used for asexual propagation purposescuttinga tree or shrub trained to grow in two dimensions, such as flat against a wallespalierthe circle that forms at the ends of branches of a tree, where water would drip off the leaves onto the grounddrip linethe process of sowing seeds with a mixture of water, fertilizer, and mulchhydroseedingthe condition when roots in a container circle inside and become dense and mattedpot-bounda condition on fruits in the summer when direct sunlight causes the fruit temperature to become so high that injury or death occurs on that sidesunburna plant out of placeweedthe irreversible process of plant degradation and death, caused by stress or agesenescence