Color vision deficiency is more common in males than in females because it is controlled by a:
recessive x-linked gene
Understanding differences in intelligence as a function of early experiences is an example of an _______ explanation.
Someone claims that if genes control a condition, changes in the environment will have no effect on the expression of that gene. Which of the following is the strongest example to contradict that claim?
Which function is NOT performed by glia?
In a myelinated axon, where are sodium gates abundant?
at the Nodes of Ranvier
When stating the neuron's membrane is polarized, you are referring to a difference in electrical potential between:
the inside and the outside of the membrane
The function of dendritic spines is to:
have a larger surface area available for receiving information from other neurons
If there is a depolarizing effect on a neuron, the result will be that the neuron will fire:
only if it reaches the threshold of excitation
Sherrington found that repeated stimuli within a brief time at the same point have a cumulative effect. He referred to this phenomenon as:
A graded hyperpolarization of a postsynaptic membrane is known as:
Why is the speed of conduction through a reflex arc slower than the speed of conduction of an action potential along an axon?
Transmission between neurons at synapses is slower than along axons
A normal, healthy animal never contracts the flexor muscles and the extensor muscles of the same leg at the same time. Why?
When the interneuron sends excitatory messages to one, inhibitory messages go to the other.
What provides the building blocks for synthesizing all neurotransmitters?
substances found in the diet
Increased permeability to which of the following ions would most likely result in an IPSP?
Why do cocaine and amphetamine produce similar effects?
both increase the presence of dopamine in the synapses
Suppose a virus damaged only the dorsal roots of the spinal cord, but not the ventral roots. What would happen to the sensory and motor abilities of the affected area?
loss of sensation, but preserved motor control
The term pons is named as such because:
axons within the pons cross over from one side to the other
Which of the following would be the most likely effect of taking a drug that blocks sympathetic nervous system activity?
decreased heart rate
Sensory information that is not processed by the thalamus includes:
Superior colliculus is to _____ as inferior colliculus is to _____
The area of the brain known to be important for "binding" is the:
After the migrating neuron reaches its destination, ____ begin to form.
The stages of neurogenesis that occur for the longest duration are:
Mylenation and synaptogensis
The most likely reason that children with fetal alcohol syndrome have brain abnormalities is because alcohol:
decreases release of neurotrophins
Focal hand dystonia, sometimes called "musician cramp," is caused by:
extremem overlap of corticol representation of the fingers
A stroke kills neurons in two waves, by _____ and by _____.
A cortical cell originally responded to stimulation of the middle finger. After amputation of that finger it begins responding to the second and fourth fingers. What most likely accounts for this?
MAOI's, tricyclics, and SSRI's all produce which effect on neurons?
increased or prolonged serotonin or dopamine in the synapses
If the brain is affected prenatally or neonatally, it could be that it takes many years before the symptoms of schizophrenia are evident because the:
affected areas are among the slowest to mature
An alternative to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia is the proposal that schizophrenia may be due to a deficiency of activity of _____ synapses.
You have more precise control over the movement of tour fingers than you do your trunk because:
they have few muscle fibers per motor neuron
What will cause a muscle to relax?
absence of acetylcholine
A contraction of equal force in antagonist muscles of the arm would result in _____ of the arm.
Which of the following would most likely happen with damage to the prefrontal cortex?
poorly planned movements
Which area of the brain is responsible for learning new motor programs, especially when they are not guided by stimuli.
Im Huntington's disease, the age of onset is shown as a function of:
the number of repeated glutamine sequences
Exercising at a high altitude where there is less oxygen is most likely to affect:
Experimenters present stimuli very briefly under conditions where people sometime perceive them consciously and sometimes not. How, if at all, do the brain responses differ?
When something is conscious, its representation spreads to much of the cortex
During binocular rivalry what do people ordinarily perceive?
alternation of one eye's view and then the others
An astronaut orbiting earth experiences 45 minute periods of daylight alternating with 45 minute periods of darkness. What is most likely to happen?
they sleep poorly during rest periods
The suprachiasmatic nucleus is found in the:
Within the sleep cycle, a sharp high-amplitude negative wave followed by a smaller, slower, positive wave is called:
What is there result of electrical stimulation to the reticular formation?
In response to meaningful events, the locus coeruleus releases:
Similar to the effects of sleep apnea, rats that are repeatedly oxygen deprived lose neurons throughout the cortex and hippocampus, causing impairments in:
learning and memory
Which evidence is the most detrimental to the James Lange theory?
patients with pure autonomic failure experience emotions
A group of forebrain structures that appear to be critical for emotion are known as the:
Damage to the ____ results in a diminished ability to experience and recognize disgust.
If a hamster is primed for a fight, increased activity will most likely be found:
in the corticomedial amygdala
High levels of phenylalanine in the diet impact the synthesis of serotonin because it:
competes with an active transport mechanism shared by tryptophan.
The ____ receives axons from the amygdala and sends axons to the pons to control the startle response
Lashley trained rats on a variety of mazes, then made deep cuts in their cortexes. He found that the cuts produced:
little apparent effect
In studies that paired a tone with an air put to the cornea of rabbits, learning was found to depend on one nucleus of the:
If the lateral interpositus nucleus is temporarily suppressed during classical conditioning of the eyeblink response, what happens?
future conditioning occurs as if the animal had no previous training
The inability to form memories for events that happened after brain damage is a characteristic of _____ amnesia
_____ is an influence of recent experiences on behavior, even if one does not recognize that influence
People with damage in the anterior and inferior regions of the temporal lobe suffer:
At many hippocampal synapses, long-term potentiation depends on the activation of NMDA receptors, which are responsive to:
What is known to be critical for long-term potentiation?
a massive inflow of calcium
Why do individuals with prefrontal cortex damage often make bad decisions?
They don't anticipate the unpleasantness of likely outcomes
A deficit of acetylcholine or its receptors:
In adulthood, the rooting and babinski reflexes:
are suppressed (by the prefrontal cortex), but they can return if cortical activity decreases
Damage to the ________ impairs the ability to organize smooth sequences of activities.
Which of the following are two kinds of proprioceptors?
muscle spindles and golgi tendons
A motor program is:
movement that, once triggered, continues automatically until its completion
Axons of the lateral corticospinal tract extend to what area?
In order to elicit movement, the motor cortex:
sends axons to the brainstem and spinal cord
Studies on conscious decisions regarding voluntary movements suggest that:
brain activity for the movement begins before we are conscious of our decision
What is the most common drug in the treatment of parkinson's disease?
L-dope (precursor to dopamine)
Which of the following is true of Huntington's disease?
the earlier the onset, the more rapid the deterioration
What part of the brain controls cyclical patterns of hormone release?
SCN in the hypothalamus
What is a strong piece of evidence that the SCN generates the circadian rhythm?
SCN neurons generate a circadian rhythm of impulses even after removal from the brain
Mammals have circadian rhythms:
for a variety of reasons, including sleep
What is the path in the retina which resulted in a release of melatonin?
ganglion cells via retinohypothalamic pathway
On an EEG, alpha waves are a characteristic of what?
Activity in what brain structure inhibits movement during REM?
Sleep paralysis is a characteristic of which abnormality?
According to the activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming:
dreams begin with periodic bursts of spontaneous activity
The retinohypothalamic path to the SCN comes from a special population of retinal ganglion cells that have their own photopigment called:
Alterations of the PER gene in humans is associated with:
shortened circadian rhythms
Which of the following bodily patterns does not typically accompany dreaming activity:
higher level of general muscle activity
Stage 1 sleep is dominated by sleep spindles and K-complexes
FALSE- it's stage 2
Which of the following statements about the typical pattern of sleep cycles is false?
we most often naturally awake during sleep stage 4
After a period of sleep deprivation, PGO waves begin to:
occur during sleep stages 2-4 and wakefulness
What is the pontemesencephalon responsible for?
increases cortical arousal
What neurotransmitter is related to the cause of narcolepsy?
orexin- maintains wakefuleness
Compared to the earlier part, the later part of a nights sleep:
includes a lager percentage of REM sleep
What are the body;s two stress response systems called?
autonomic (cortisol) and HPA axis (epinephrine, norepinephrine)
Protein released by leukocytes and other cells that fight infection and communicates to the brain that the body is ill:
According to the James-Lange theory of emotion:
perception of one's autonomic and skeletal responses produces the feeling aspect of emotion
Identify the four brain regions that are affected by PTSD: