Study of Human Diseases exam 3

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Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
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Terms in this set (168)
Diagnosis of epilepsyElectroencephalopathy (EEG) MRI/CTTreatment for epilepsyantiseizure medicationsPrevention from epilepsyCannot prevent disorder, can protect individual from injury during seizureStrokeSudden interruption of blood flow to a part of the brainWhat are the two kinds of stroke?Ischemic: Makes up 85% of strokes Hemorrhagic: Makes up 15% of strokesSigns & Symptoms of a strokesudden onset of numbness loss of vision muscle weakness on one side of face/body difficulty with walking, talking, or understandingDiagnosis of a strokeAssessment of cognitive, motor, and sensory function, CT, MRI, and cerebral angiographyTreatment for ischemic strokeclot-busting medsTreatment for hemorrhagic strokemeds to lower BP and control intracranial pressure, surgery to repair vesselTreatment for both hemorrhagic and ischemic strokerehab to address speech, physical, cognitive, and emotional needsTransient Ischemic Attack (TIA)mini-stroke, temporary, pre-cursor to strokeMeningitisAcute inflammation of the meninges that cover brain and spinal cord, bacterial & viral types Many different microorgs can cause (Strep, Listeria, West Nile Virus, Mumps, etc.)How is meningitis transmitted?respiratory droplets close contact contaminated foodSigns & Symptoms of meningitissevere headache stiff neck fever chills vomiting confusion sensitivity to light confusion in infants--bulging fontanels, irritability, poor reflexesDiagnosis of meningitislumbar puncture CT/MRITreatment for bacterial meningitisIV antibiotics, corticosteroidsTreatment for viral meningitistreat symptoms, restPrevention from meningitisVaccination (Hib, Pneumococcal, Meningococcal)Alzheimer'sMost common form of dementiaRisk factors for Alzhiemers> age family historySigns & Symptoms of alzhiemersmemory loss confusion loss of spatial and temporal orientation emotional and personality changes mood swings unable to care for themselvesDiagnosis: for alzhiemersExam/history CT/MRI to rule out other causes autopsy is only confirmationTreatment for alzhiemersNo cure, some medications can help delay progressionMultiple SclerosisChronic, progressive degenerative disorder of the CNSRisk factors for multiple sclerosisAges (15-50) females family historySigns & Symptoms of multiple sclerosisnumbness weakness fatigue double vision/vision loss loss of motor function loss of bowel/bladder control cognitive declineDiagnosis of multiple sclerosisHistory/Neuro exam MRITreatment of Multiple sclerosisPT/OT antispasmodics (to control muscle spasms) corticosteroids (to control inflammation) antiseizures (suppresses numbness and tingling) immunosuppressantsPrevention: from multiple sclerosisTry to prevent diseases exacerbations with medications, disease not preventable.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)AKA Lou Gehrig's disease, terminal illness, progressive loss of motor functionRisk factors for ALS>age 30 males more commonSigns & Symptoms of ALStwitching weakness in the limbs slurred speech paralysis inability to chew, swallow, speak, and breathe. Death usually within 3-5 years from onset.Diagnosis of ALSHistory of S/S EMG nerve conduction study MRITreatment for ALSNo cure, one medication helps to slow progression, other meds to treat symptomsParkinson's diseaseDegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of muscle coordination, control, and movementRisk factors for Parkinsons<age more common in men family history exposure to toxinsSigns & Symptoms of Parkinsonsshaking in hands, rigid, mask-like expression, tremors, stiffness, inability to initiate movement, shuffling gait, loss of reflexes, problems with speech and swallowing, hunched posture, depression.Diagnosis of ParkinsonsHistory/Physical Imaging is not helpfulTreatment: for Parkinsonslevodopa other medications deep brain stimulation counseling PT/OTDiabetes type 1Formerly called "Juvenile Diabetes," due to onset usually in childhood Auto-immune condition characterized by little or no insulin productionRisk factors for type 1 diabetesgenetics family history exposure to certain viral infections Caucasian northern climates having another autoimmune conditionSigns & Symptoms of type 1 diabetesexcessive thirst excessive urination hunger weight lossDiagnosis for type 1 diabetesUrine test (check presence of glucose), fasting blood glucose (>8 hours fasting) oral glucose tolerance tests HbA1C (tests average blood glucose levels over the last 3 months)Type 2 DiabetesFormerly called "Adult-onset Diabetes," Inadequate insulin production and/or insulin resistanceRisk Factors for type 2 diabetesfamily history >45 years old obesity history of gestational diabetes sedentary lifestyle history of high blood pressure elevated cholesterolSigns & Symptoms of type 2 diabetesexcessive thirst excessive urination excessive hunger weight loss fatigue blurry vision numbness or tingling in hands/feet slow wound healingDiagnosis for type 2 diabetesUrine testing blood glucose testing HbA1CTreatment for type 2 diabetesMonitoring of blood glucose exercise dietary modifications weight loss oral diabetes medications (Metformin and more), and sometimes insulin replacementGestational DiabetesDiabetes that develops during pregnancy, usually resolving after birthEtiology of Gestational DiabetesPlacental hormones increase blood glucose if pancreas can't increase insulin=blood sugar levels riseRisk factors of gestational diabetes> 25 years old family history being overweightSigns & Symptoms of gestational diabetesRare, sometimes increased thirst and urinationDiagnosis of gestational diabetesOral Glucose Tolerance Test (1-hour to screen, 3-hour to diagnose)Treatment for gestational diseasemonitoring blood sugar dietary changes exercise insulinComplications of gestational disease in babiesMacrosomia (large baby, >9lbs) preterm birth respiratory distress syndrome hypoglycemia after birth Type 2 Diabetes later in lifeComplications of gestational disease in mothersHigh blood pressure Pre-eclampsia Shoulder dystocia higher rate of C-section Higher risk of Type 2 DiabetesRisk factors for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)>age pregnancySymptoms of GERDheartburn (burning, pressure, pain)Treatment for GERDnonirritating diet antacids medications upright after eatingGastroenteritisinflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestinesSymptoms of Gastroenteritisanorexia nausea vomiting diarrheaCauses of Gastroenteritisbacterial/viral chemical toxins lactose intolerance food allergy.Diagnosis for Gastroenteritishistory stool sampleTreatment for Gastroenteritisreplace fluids (including salts/potassium) antispasmodic medications sometimesHow is Gastroenteritis transmitted?Viral/bacterial forms are transmitted via the fecal/oral route. Examples include: salmonella, E.coli, norovirusAppendicitisAcute and painful inflammation of the appendixSymptoms of appendicitisStarts as generalized abdominal pain and discomfort, becomes more severe and targeted in lower right quadrant of abdomen, nausea, vomiting, fever, elevated WBCsTreatment for appendicitisAntibiotics and Surgery to remove appendixCeliac DiseaseAutoimmune, Gluten intolerance that leads to damage in the small intestineSigns & Symptoms of celiac diseaserecurrent diarrhea, gas, abdominal cramps, malnutritionDiagnosis of celiac diseasebased on symptoms lab tests confirmed with biopsy of small intestineLong-term health complications of celiac diseasemiscarriage early onset osteoporosis intestinal cancers gallbladder malfunction vitamin and mineral deficienciesTreatment of celiac diseaseDietary elimination of gluten vitamin supplementationDiverticulosis/DiverticulitisOutpouches in the intestinal wall become inflamedPre-cursor of Diverticulitis is:DiverticulosisRisk factors for Diverticulitislow fiber diet >age family historySigns & Symptoms of Diverticulitislower abdominal cramping, typically on left sideComplications of Diverticulitisbowel obstruction or abscessDiagnosis of DiverticulitisCT scan and colonoscopyTreatment for DiverticulitisAntibiotics, dietary changesCrohn's DiseaseInflammatory disease of the upper and sometimes distal ileumRisk factors for chrons diseaseWomen ages 20-40 Ashkenazi Jews family history other autoimmune disorderSigns & Symptoms of chrons diseaseLower right abdominal cramping chronic diarrhea, may alternate with constipation, anorexia, nausea, weight loss, electrolyte imbalances, nutritional deficienciesDiagnosis for chrons diseaseCT and endoscopy/colonoscopy elevated WBCs Biopsy for confirmationTreatment for chrons diseaseAnti-inflammatory and immunosuppresive medications, surgeries (like bowel resection), vitamin supplementationIrritable Bowel SyndromeCommon, affecting nearly 20% of Americans, More common in women than men, can be situationalRisk factors for IBSlaxative use irritating foods (caffeine, alcohol, spicy and fatty foods citrus stressful eventsSigns & Symptoms of IBSdiarrhea constipation abdominal pain and gasTreatment of IBSAvoidance of "trigger" foods increase fiber in diet stress managementPelvic Inflammatory Diseasean infection of one or more of the upper reproductive organsRisk factors for pelvic inflammatory diseaseMultiple sex partners & STIsBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)Age-associated prostate gland enlargement that can cause urination difficulty.Symptoms of BPHUrinary frequency & urgency weak stream dribbling incontinence pain after ejaculation or urinationLower UTI'sAffects urethra and/or bladder (urethritis, cystitis)Symptoms of Lower UTI'sStrong, persistent urge to urinate painful, burning sensation during urination cloudy or foul-smelling urine occasionally blood in urineUpper UTI'sAffects kidney (pyelonephritis)Symptoms of Upper UTI'sUpper back and side pain, high fever, nausea, vomitingPrevention from UTI'sDrink plenty of water Wipe from front to back Empty bladder after intercourse Avoid irritating female products (douches, sprays, powders)Chronic Kidney DiseaseProgressive loss of renal function resulting in kidney failureCauses of Chronic Kidney DiseaseDiabetes & HypertensionSymptoms of Chronic Kidney Diseasefatigue difficulty concentrating poor appetite swollen feet/ankles itchy skin puffiness around eyesDiagnosis of Chronic Kidney DiseaseGlomerular Filtration Rate Kidney Ultrasound, Kidney BiopsyTreatment for Chronic Kidney DiseaseAddress causative factors dialysis in end stages, transplantLung cancerLeading cause of cancer deaths among men and women in the USRisk factors for lung diseasesmoking exposure to secondhand smoke age (over 65) exposure to asbestos and radon family historySigns & Symptoms of early lung cancerfew to no symptoms, coughing, chest pain, blood-streaked sputumSigns & Symptoms of later lung cancerdifficulty breathing, weight loss, weakness, anorexiaDiagnosis of lung cancerChest x-ray and biopsyTreatment of lung cancerSurgery, chemotherapy, radiationPrevention of lung cancerNot smoking or quitting home testing for radon avoiding exposure to smoke and carcinogens at work5-year survival rate of lung cancer54% when localized, 4% if metastasizedRisk factors of Breast cancerage never having given birth first child after age 35, early menopause, genetic risk factors (BRCA1 or BRCA2) , overweight/obese, inactivity, alcohol consumption, Caucasian, family history.Signs & Symptoms of breast cancerlump or mass with irregular borders, swelling of breast, skin irritation or dimpling, breast or nipple pain, nipple retraction, redness/thickening of breast skin, nipple dischargeScreening for breast cancerMonthly breast self-examination beginning in 20's, clinical breast examination every 3 years from 20-40, and annually after 40, Mammography annually after 50Diagnosis for breast cancerultrasound and biopsyTreatment for breast cancersurgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone therapyPrevention from breast cancerlimit alcohol, breastfeed, don't smoke, be active, control weight, healthy diet5-year survival rate for breast cancer90%Risk factors for prostate cancerIncreased age, family history, race (more common in AA), prostatic changesSigns & Symptoms of prostate cancernot being able to pass urine, hard time starting or stopping flow, urinating often, weak flow, flow that starts and stops, pain during urination, erectile dysfunction, blood in urine, pain in backs, hips, or upper thighsDiagnosis of prostate cancerDigital Rectal Exam (DRE), Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), ultrasound, biopsyTreatment for prostate cancerWatchful waiting, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, meds to decrease testosterone5-year survival rate100% if localized, 31% if metastasizedRisk factors for Colorectal Cancerlong-standing history of ulcerative colitis, polyps, family history, diet high in red meat, diet low in fiber, cigarette smoking, older age, excessive alcohol, obesitySigns & Symptoms of colorectal cancerchange in bowel habits, diarrhea or constipation, blood in stool, abdominal discomfort and tension (growth of tumor), bowel obstructionDiagnosis of colorectal cancerDigital Rectal Exam (DRE), CTScreening for colorectal cancerBeginning at age 50-fecal occult blood test, colonoscopy at regular intervalsTreatment for colorectal cancerSurgical removal of tumors and/or segments of the colon, chemotherapy if metastasized5-year survival rate for colorectal cancer64%Risk factors for pancreatic cancerMale, cigarette smoking, high-protein and high-fat diets, exposure to industrial chemicals, chronic alcohol abuse, history of pancreatitis, diabetesSigns & Symptoms of pancreatic cancerjaundice, impaired digestion, fatty, clay-colored stools, malnutrition, weight loss. Pain=tumor growth and metastasisDiagnosis for prostate cancerultrasound and biopsyTreatment for pancreatic cancersurgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, but rarely successful5-year survival rate for pancreatic cancer6%Non-Hodgkin's LymphomaCancer of the lymphocytes, most common in adults >60Risk factors for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomaweakened immune system, history of certain infections (H.pylori, Epstein-barr, Hep. C, HIV)Signs & Symptoms of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomapainless swelling of lymph nodes, fatigue, unexplained fever, night sweats, itchy skin, coughing, chest pain, feeling full in abdomen, unexplained weight lossDiagnosis of Non-Hodgkin's LymphomaComplete Blood Count, biopsyTreatment for Non-Hodgkin's LymphomaWatchful waiting, radiation, chemotherapy, anti-inflammatory meds, antibody therapy5-year survival rate for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma69%Polioinfection of the motor neuronsTetanusmuscle rigidity and paralysisShingles (Herpes Zoster)painful inflammation of sensory neuronsRabiesviral infection of the brainReye Syndromein children after a viral infectionHypothyroidisma condition in which your thyroid gland doesn't produce enough of certain crucial hormones.HyperthyroidismAlso called Graves disease when the thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormoneCushing's syndromeA condition that occurs from exposure to high cortisol levels for a long timeEsophageal Varicesabnormal, enlarged veins in the tube that connects the throat and stomach (esophagus)Polydipsiaexcessive thirstPolyuriaexcessive urinationPolyphagiaexcessive hungerTumor/NeoplasmAn abnormal mass of tissue that forms when cells grow and divide more than they should or do not die when they shouldBenignnon cancerousMalignantWhen the tumor growsMetastasisWhen cancer spreadsDiagnostic Tests & Procedures for Neurological DisordersNeurological exam X-ray, CT MRI Electroencephalography (EEG) Spinal tap Myelography AngiographyDiagnostic Tests & Procedures of the Gastrointestinal System•Laboratory Tests (liver enzymes, WBCs) •Cultures (stool)•Biopsy •Imaging (CT, X-ray, MRI, Ultrasound, Endoscopy, Colonscopy)