motor learning final

We study motor development in order to
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Gross motor skills refer tomovements performed as a function of large muscle groupsWho was the Swiss psychologist who established the clinical method of research and was interested with the process of thinking?John PiagetTheories of Intellectual Development show that an adults reaction time and cognitive performance improve in those who exerciseTrueExercise and physical activity are not only good for improving our physical appearance and health but they are also great forImproving sleep Reducing depression Increases appetiteIn which stage of life do we focus on increasing awareness of the difference between the self and others along with recognition that object continue to exist even though they are no longer in viewinfancy (Sensorimotor)Self-consciousness, lack of motivation, limited amount of time, and lack of social support are all _____ for girl's participation in physical activityBarriersThe term used to describe a set of expectations about human behavior is commonly called what?NormDuring this stage, there is a large emphasis on the use of symbols and language development and Piaget's also emphasizes that there are limitations in a child's cognitive developmentChildhood (Preoperational)During this stage, advanced thinking exist in a minority of people who are highly educated and live in a culture that encourages new ideas and freethinking, there is a gradual decline that may be present during this stageAdulthood (Postformal Operational)A dual process of interaction and development through which humans learn who they ar, how they are connect to social worlds in which they live, and the orientations used as a basis for behavior and group lifeSocializationWhich of the following are predictors for girls' sport participation?Fathers, mothers, sisters, their knowledge, and their social supportDuring this stage, Children cannot yet consider multiple aspects of a problemChildhood (Preoperational)During this stage, children have an advanced level of cognitive ability and should be familiar with problem solving techniques such as hypothetical-deductive reasoningLater Childhood/Adolescence (Concrete Operational and Formal operational)This domain focuses on all types of physical/bodily changesPhysicalThis domain is concerned with human intellectual developmentCognitiveThis domain is concerned with the social and emotional aspects of human developmentAffectiveThe domain focuses on the development of human movement and factors that affect the developmentMotorThis term relates to how much we believe ourselves to be competent, successful, significant, and worthSelf-esteemWhich of the following are negative affects that retirement can have on an individual?Sense of "usefulness" is lost Loss of social status Nutrition problems may arise____ prohibits sex discrimination in the education programs and activities of entities that receive federal financial assistanceTitle IXWhen preparing activities, it is important to determine what activity is appropriate for a particular age group in order for them to succeedTrueThis requires active participation from the player, it is usually view as unproductive, spontaneous and voluntaryPlayDuring which phase is friend and teacher support a major contributor to ones self-worth?AdolescenceToys should not replace human love, caring, and interactionTruePlay is essential to learningTrueWhen does sport socialization begin?ChildhoodWhich of the following are benefits of team play?Work towards team/group goals Learn about failure Learns that intellectual demands are greaterThis is factual knowledge that one possess, knowing "what to do" when it comes to sports performanceDeclarative KnowledgeThis type of knowledge produces results, it's the "how to do something" when it comes to sports performanceProcedural KnowledgeWhen it comes to development, ________ is the qualitative functional changes that occur with ageMaturationWhen it comes to development, ________ is the quantitative structural changes occurring with ageGrowthWe categorize human behavior into domains because it is useful in organizing and simplifying the study of human developmentTrueDuring this stage, there is no permanence, for example if you move the toy behind the pillow the keys are goneInfancy (Sensorimotor)Practicing cognitive abilities will increase decline over timeFalseIf two children are in the same living room playing, one is playing with blocks and the other is playing with cars, they are demonstrating which of the followingparallel playThese programs do not emphasize specific practice of future motor skills and instruction is withheld until the infant learns body controlNo programmingThis theory suggest that children learn morally appropriate or inappropriate behaviors through observation of and reinforcement from significant othersSocial learning theoryWhat is ones ability to deal with the present environment in school and for lifesocial competenceWhat is the most important thing in a Gymboree program?FunThe Suzuki method suggest that children need to have which of the following in order to learn a musical instrument such as a violin?They should be motivated should not be forced into lessons Appropriately sized instrumentsPrograms such as the "Head Start" programs help to _______ the educational gap when it comes to vocabulary, writing, and social skillsNarrowThis type of programming is when parents and those involved in the child day to day life take an active role in external stimulationProgrammingThese programs enhance the social competence of children from lower income familieshead start programsThis is a time of particular or maximum sensitivity to environmental stimulation, during this period, children are able to learn things which are essential for survivalCritical periodWhen _____ is affected, motor development may also be affectedGrowthThis refers to cognitive processes that individuals use when thinking about moral dilemmasMoral reasoningThis is the ability to "stabilize and return" to a predetermined behavior or growth pattern after one has "gone off coursecatch-upThe establishment of the minimum characteristics necessary for a particular human behavior to be acquired is known as ______ReadinessWhen it comes to the relationship between goal orientation and moral beliefs, A person who has poor sportsmanship, antisocial behaviors, and shows little response for rules demonstrations which of the following?high ego; low taskThis refers to social norms and conventions associated with sport participation including attitudes and behaviors that maintain order and reflect the "spirit of the game"sportsmanship/fair playDesire or motivation to do what is morally good, willpower to control selfish desires, and integrity to follow through with moral commitments are all qualities of a persons ____CharacterThese are expected behaviors when participating in a particular sport.sports normsA _______ influence on human growth created by serious deprivation or adverse stimulationNegativeWhen an individual evaluates the situation and decides which action to take based on moral ideas, they are showing good moral ____JudgementPhysical activity can help in the development of respect, responsibility, compassion, and charactertrueWatching how coaches act in desirable and undesirable ways affects youth's subsequent behaviorstrueThis is the number of times your heart beats each minute?Heart rateThis is the range of motion within a joint that declines with ageFlexibilityCardiac output is the amount of blood pumped in 1 minute and is calculated by which formula?Heart rate x stroke volumeField test areinexpensive PracticalThis is the volume of blood ejected from the heart with each beat?Stroke VolumeThis method of measuring body composition can easily test everyone and the calculations are based on ait displacement, this is a very simple and popular way to test because it is quick and reliableBod PodThis is the preferred method of measurement length. It is measured between the vertex and the floor while the individual is standingStatureThis is the ability to exert a muscular force against a non-movable or movable object?Muscle StrengthThis is the largest amount of oxygen that a human can utilize at the tissue level (VO2 max) and it is the best measure of physical work capability?Maximal Oxygen ConsumptionTotal body strength __________ in women then it is in menIs lowerWhich of the following are health consequences of obesity?Diabetes elevated blood pressure Cardiovascular DiseaseThis method of measuring body composition is the preferred method for determining body fat percentage and its calculations are based upon water displacement but it is not practical as a field testDEXAThis is measure from the vertex (highest point of the skill) to the soles of the feet, this is how we measure children who are unable to stand up straight on their ownRecumbent LengthOne's weight is a matter of nutritional status and exercise status?TrueThis refers to a period during the growth spurt where ones motor performance is disrupted (This is not universal, meaning it does not occur in everyone)Adolescent awkwardnessOnes ______ refers to their overall body formPhysiqueWhen it comes to body proportions, ______ tend to habe ider shoulders, and _________ tend to have wider hips and shorter legsMen; womenThis equipment is responsible for measure differences among lean soft tissue, fat soft tissue, and boneDEXAChronological age is a poor indicator of maturityTrueWhich of the following is NOT a part of the Female Athlete TriadExcessive weight gainFITT stands for which of the following?Frequency, intensity, time, typeInside the retina there are two photoreceptors, which one is responsible for vision in low illumination?RodsInside the retine there are two photoreceptors, which one is responsible for color vision and visual acuity (sharpness)?ConesWhich of the following do we consider to be normal vision?20/20What is used to determine visual acuity?A Snellen Eye ChartThis disease causes cloudiness of the eye's lens, along wtih faded colors, and an increased need for light when readingCataractsThis is a cerebral function based upon information sent by the eye to the brain. This is very important in sports or activities where "aiming" is essentialdepth perceptionThis term refers to coordinated eye movementsBinocular visionThis refers to the entire extent of the environment that can be seen without a change in fixation of the eyeField of visionThis portion of the ear contains receptors that are responsible for balanceSemicircular canalsAs children get older, their dynamic basegets more narrow"An exaggerated form of" and "a natural extension of the basic skill of walking" are definitions forRunningMovements predominantly produced by the smaller muscles or muscle groups are BEST referred to asFine motorBeing able to identify and acquire information about objects with the hands would best be expressed by which definition?Haptic perceptionThis is a fundamental movement in which a designated body part or equipment is used to project an objectStrikingThis is the action of bringing an airborne object under control by using the hands and armscatchingSometimes when learning how to catch an object, a child may experience ______ in reaction to the object and because of previous failuresfearWhen two-hand catching, alot of times the firct contact points is a childs ________ (before it hits their arms)ChestWhich of the following is a constraint on the development of catching?Ball size and color knowledge and experience Vision and viewing timeThis motor skill involves striking an airborne ball with the footPuntingA slowly moving ball such as a beach ball is preferred when working with inexperienced catchersTrueOne- handed catching is _____ successful that two- handed catching. _________100lessWhen throwing and striking a child typically steps with the same leg as the arm they are throwing with and then as they advance they begin to step with thethe opposite legCerbral Palsy is all of the following EXCEPTProgressiveA more contemporary and preferred term for "mental retardation" isIntellectual disabilityAttention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is characterized by what?Difficulty paying attentionMotor delays in children with visual impairments are frequently related to what?Lack of experience in observing others perform the movement in questionObject-control skills include all of the following EXCEPTSkippingThe ability to acquire information about objects with the hands as opposed to looking at them is defined as what?Haptic perceptionAccording to the research of Ziviani (1983), the dynamic tripod is usually present in children by ageSevenNegative reactions to the tossed ball include all of the following EXCEPTTracking the ballWhat is the most important factor in drawing development?The home environmentHow is the study of finger tapping an important indicator of fine motor development?used to diagnose neurological difficultyWhat is/are a reason(s) for fine motor movement slowing in late adulthood?Arthritis osteoporosis Reversal of the proximodistal progression