50 terms

sociology test 3

What is the unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on a person's sex called?
gender stratification
While the notion of gender refers to sociological characteristics, the concept of sex refers to ________ characteristics.
Why do sociologists classify females as a minority group?
women are discriminated against because of thier physical charcteristics
. What "wave" of feminism was characterized by broad goals ranging from an increase in women's pay to an antiviolence campaign?
the second wave
Based the same levels of academic achievement, where does the greatest pay gap exist between men and women over their lifetime?
among college graduates
Which statement best describes how feminists view sexual harassment?
based on structual problems embedded in society
What term describes the invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels of a corporation?
the glass ceiling
Which statement best summarizes the relationship between killers and their victims?
men outnumber women as both victims and killers
What is the age range of women most likely to be victims of rape?
What is a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguishes it from another group?
While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.
In society, what is the group called with the greatest power, privileges, and social status?
dominant group
According to Adorno, a[n] ________ is a person who is prejudiced and ranks high on scales of conformity, intolerance, insecurity, respect for authority, and submissiveness to superiors.
authoritarian personality
When the Native Americans were pacified by the military in the late 1800s they were forced to learn the English language, dress like the white man, renounce their religion, and give up their customs. This was a classic example of ________.
forced assimilation
Slavery and apartheid are both examples of how a country's dominant group exploits minority groups for its economic advantage. What do sociologists call this policy?
internal colonization
In American history who were the "white ethnics"?
immigrants from europe whose languages and other customs differ from the original white anglo saxon protestants
Of all ethnic groups, in which one are children most likely to grow up with two parents and the least likely to be born to a single mother?
The group often referred to as the "invisible minority" is ________.
Native Americans
The systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation of a people based on their presumed race or ethnicity is called ________.
As described in the text, what are the two myths of race?
1 race is superior to another and pure races exist
Prejudice describes ________ while discrimination describes ________.
prejudice describes attitudes and discrimination describes action
The practice the South employed after the Civil War to segregate blacks from whites was called __.
jim crow laws
Sociologically, "what is family?"
two or more people related by blood, marriage or adoption
Sociologically, what is the immediate family of husband, wife, and children called who live apart from other kin?
Maria and Brian recently gave birth to their first child. Based on sociological findings, what is the likely change in the marital satisfaction that Maria and Brian feel towards one another?
it will decrease
Among married couples, who is likely to care for preschoolers when both parents work outside the home?
organized childcare facilities
The group with the highest percentage of one parent families with a female head of household is ________ and the group with the lowest percentage of one parent families with a female head of household is ________.
african americans , asian american
In which families would elders play the most active role in rearing their grandchildren?
Native american
Sociologically, what is a blended family?
husband or wife bringing a child into the new family from a prior relationship
How has the rate of cohabitation changed over the past 30 years?
increase 10-fold
What are the percentage odds that a couple married today will still be married a year from now?
What is the main difference between cohabitation and marriage?
there is a greater degree of finacial and emotional commitment
How has the age of the average first-time bride and groom in the United States changed since 1890?
both the bride and groom are older than at any other time
Why do functionalists argue that the incest taboo is a nearly universal norm?
the incest taboo facilitates the socialization of children and avoids role confusion
John was adopted as an infant and although he knows this, has always considered the Smiths' his "real" family. What do sociologists classify the Smith family as it is regarded by John?
family of orientation
What are the three elements of religion based on the writings of Emile Durkheim?
reliefs practices moral community
What are the two dysfunctions of religion addressed in the textbook?
religious persecution, war and terrorism
What is the term that refers to a sudden awareness of the supernatural or a feeling of coming in contact with God?
religious experience
Marx's notion that religion diverts the thoughts of workers to the afterlife rather than toward rebellion against their worldly oppressors is expressed by his statement ________.
religion is opium of the people
What does the "spirit of capitalism" refer to as proposed by Max Weber?
a new approach to work and monwy that emphasizes investment to make profit
What was the fundamental difference between Judaism and all other religions that preceded it?
judaism was based on monotheism
What is the world's largest religion, boasting two billion members?
Islam today is divided between two groups, one conservative and one liberal. Which of these two factions tends to be more liberal and accepting of social change?
In Hinduism, one of the central beliefs is karma, which means ________.
spiritual progress
Which phrase best summarizes the "Confucian Golden Rule"?
treat subordinates the way you would want to be treated by your superiors
n Buddhism, what do the "four noble truths" emphasize?
emphasize self denial and compassion
A religious organization is referred to as a[n] ________ when the government and religion work together to try to shape society.
With 51 million members, which denomination has the highest membership in the United States?
roman catholic
What is the process by which spiritual concerns are replaced by worldly concerns?
At one time Methodists prohibited members from playing cards, dancing, and going to movies. Since then these prohibitions have been dismantled. What is this shifting of focus from spiritual matters to worldly matters called?
secularization of religion