42 terms

Population

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Crude birth rate
the number of live births per 1000 population per year.
Crude death rate
the number of deaths per 1000 population per year.
Natural increase
birth rate higher than death rate: birth rate minus death rate.
Natural decrease
death rate higher than birth rate : death rate minus birth rate.
Annual population change
the birth rate minus the death rate plus or minus migration.
Migration
the movement of people either into or out of an area.
Population
World's population is growing rapidly because a large majority of countries have a natural increase. The global population is expected to peak at 10 billion, it may then slowly begin to drop after 2000. From 2013-2028, 15 years, the population will reach 7 billion. From 2028-2054, the population will reach 8 billion, this will take 26 years. Another billion will increase in another 129 years until 2183 when it will reach 16 billion. As you can see the rate that the population is increasing is slowing down. This means that it will eventually level off.
The demographic transition model
Shows population change over time, it is a simpplifies version of reality.
Stage 1- Total population is low but it is balanced due to high birth rates and high death rates.
Stage2- Total population rises as death rates fall due to improvements in health care and sanitation. Birth rates remain high.
Stage 3- Total population is still rising rapidly. The gap between birth and death rates narrows due to the availability of contraception and fewer children being needed to work - due to the mechanization of farming. The natural increase is high.
Stage 4- Total population is high, but it is balanced by a low birth rate and a low death rate. Birth control is widely available and there is a desire for smaller families.
Stage 5- Total population is high but going into decline due to an ageing population. There is a continued desire for smaller families, with people opting to have children later in life.
Factors affecting population change
Education and women: as the society and economy develop, women tend to stay in education longer. This means they get marries and start having children later, and usually have fewer children as a result. Educated women also know more about birth control, ans so can limit their families more effectively.
Urbanisation: As farming methods change and fewer people are needed to work on the land, many rural people move to urban areas to work. They need fewer children there, so they have smaller families.
Changes to farming methods: If people rely on farming and there is little technology, they often have large families to provide extra workers. As technology increases, and countries develop, fewer people are employed in farming and the need for large families decline.
Population pyramid-Stage 1
High birth rate.
Rapid fall n each upward age group due to high death rates.
Short life expectancy.
Population pyramid-Stage 2
Still a high birth rate.
Fall in death rate as more living in middle age.
Slightly longer life expectancy.
Population pyramid-Stage 3
Declining birth rate.
Declining death rate.
More people living to an older age.
Population pyramid-Stage 4
Low birth rate.
Low death rate.
Higher dependency ratio.
Longer life expectancy.
Infant mortality
the number of babies dying before they reach the age of one, per 1000 births.
Fertility rate
the average number of children a woman will have in her lifetime
Life expectancy
the average number of years someone can expect to live.
GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
the value, in dollars, of the goods and services that a country produces in a year.
ppp
purchasing power parity. GDP is because a dollar buys more in some countries than in others.
Sustainable population
there are enough resources for the population to maintain their standard living without damaging the environment.
Effects affecting rapid population growth
Problems of waste disposal
Unemployment
Less food
Lack of housing, not enough land
Overgrazing or over cutting land- deforestation
Inadequate healthcare
Not enough schools- unskilled workforce.
Lack of water
Life expectancy
the average number of years someone can expect to live.
Annual population change
the birth rate minus the death rate plus or minus migration.
Migration
the movement of people either into or out of an area.
Population
The world's population is growing exponentially because a larger majority of countries have a natural increase.
The global population is expected to peak at 10 billion, it may then slowly begin to drop after 2200.
From 2012-2028, 15 years,the population will reach 7 billion. Between 2028-2054, the population will reach 8 billion, this will take 26 years. Another billion will increase in another 129 years until 2183 when it will reach 10 billion. As you can see the rate that the population is increasing is slowing down. This means that it will eventually level off.
Annual population change
the birth rate minus the death rate plus or minus migration.
Ageing population
A country that has an increasing life expectancy, a lower birth rate and a low death rate. More older than younger. A country is said to have an ageing population when more than 14% of its population is aged 65 years and above.
Reasons for ageing population
Baby boom after war.
Declining birth rates.
People living longer
Poblems of ageing population
House prices in retirement areas rises.
Government pays for pensions. Greater demand of health care - produces jobs. Growth in tourism for the elderly (days out). Taxes will increase in order to pay for pensions and health care. Retirement age will increase.
Migrant
A person who migrates.
Migration
Is the movement of people from one place to another
Source country
The country that a migrant comes from.
Host country
The country that a migrant goes to
Seasonal migration
People who only come for a season e.g. picking fruit
Economic migrant
People who chose to move for better jobs and higher wages
Refugee
People who have to move of they'll face extreme hardship, persecution and even death.
Push factor
Can force people to leave their own country.
Not enough jobs. Low wages. Poor educational opportunities. Poor health care. War with another country. Civil war and lowlessness. Draught and famine.
Pull factor
Can attract people to a new country.
Hope of finding a job. Higher wages than home. Better health care. Chance of better education. A better standard of living. Family and friends may have moved their already. Lower levels of crime, and safety from conflict.
One Child Policy
During the 1950s and 1960s, China's population grew rapidly and was seen as unsustainable. China didn't have enough food, water and energy to provide for such a rapidly growing population.
Couples who had only one child receive financial rewards and welfare benefits.
Has prevented 300 million babies being born, so its now lower than it would have been.
Social Impacts: Children feel pressured to look after 2 parents and 4 grandparents. This means there will be more old people's homes. Baby girls are often abandoned as the Chinese society prefer boys. Most end up in orphanages or if lucky, adopted. In the future men will outnumber women by 30 million, which might lead to social tension and unrest as more and more men find themselves unable to get married.
Economic impacts: Chinas growing economy will not have enough workers to keep it expanding. China is expected to have much more older people than children. Chinas population is ageing rapidly. They will all need supporting financially in their old age, which includes increasing need for expensive health care.
China's government may have to relax the policy in future to address the problems it has created.
Kerala
Kerala is one of India's most densely populated areas, but it has the countries lowest birth rates.
Kerala has led India in public services- building roads, post offices, primary and secondary schools, medical facilities and banks.
Rural poverty in Kerala is the lowest in southern India.
Womans health and education are the best in India. Food programmes focus on mothers and childcare, using ration cards and free school lunches.
Attitudes towards women are positive. There are more girls than boys in higher education, and women hold most of the top jobs.
Woman in Kerala marry on average 4 years later, and have their child 5 years later.
The success of Kerala's approach is the result of two things: Economics Kerala relies less on farming and more on service industries than other Indian states. Political decisions to invest in education and woman's health.
The strategy has been successful as it has invested in healthcare and education whilst allowing families to choose their family size freely. It has stopped population growth.`
UK's ageing population
Over the last 25 years , the percentage of the UK's population aged 65 years and over has increased from 15% to 16%. The average age of the UK's population increased from 35 in 1983, to 40 in 2009.
Problems: leads to an increase in degenerative disease like cancer, heart disease and dementia. Many elderly people have specific housing needs such as homes without stairs, increasing care needs have to move into sheltered accommodation or nursing homes. Pensions. Fewer workers.
Solutions: Strategy- "Building a society for all ages". Having the later life you want. Older people at the heart of families. Engaging with work and the economy. Improving financial support.Better public services for later life. Building communities for all ages. Persuade people to have more babies. You can do this by giving a longer paternity leave, extra money for couples, child benefit, sick child care and all-day childcare and all-day schools for all.
Polish migration study
Impacts on the UK: Provides a hard-working, motivated workforce, fill skill shortages, contribute to the local and national economy, tend to be young so they balance UK's ageing population, can put strain on local services for example schools and housing.
Impacts on Poland: Almost £4 billion was sent back to Poland from abroad. Fewer unemployed people have been left looking for jobs in Poland. However, labour shortages have been caused in service, building and science industries. People from othe countries such as Ukraine and Belarus have been invited to Poland to fill labour shortages.
In 2004, Poland and seven other Eastern European countries joined the EU. As a result of this, a wave of migration hit the UK. By 2008, over 850 000 had registered work in the UK.
Afghan refugees
A combination of conflict, drought, poverty, corruption and lack of jobs have led people to leave their homes. Many refugees went to Pakistan and Iran. Others attempted the difficult journey to the UK. People ended up in a makeshift, unsanitary settlement of homemade tents and shacks in France. Many hoped they will be allowed to stay there, many will be arrested and the settlement bulldozed.