Cell and Molecular Biology Exam #3

What are the 2 properties of DNA polymerase that constrain replication?
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What does proofreading matter?if nucleotide at 5' end is removed, it will take its phosphates (and their energy) with itHow does telomerase work?it is attracted to the repeated sequences at the tips of chromosomes, carries a strand of RNA complement, synthesizes repeat, repeatsWhat is unique about telomerase?It has reverse transcriptase activityWhat is reverse transcriptase activity?reading RNA and making DNA from thatHow does TFIID influence transcription?binds to the TATA boxHow does TFIIH influence transcription?begins initiation (unwinding DNA)How does TFIIF influence transcription?brings in RNA pol IIWhere does TFIIF bind to DNA?between +1 site and TATA boxWhat is a single-ring structured nucleotide?pyrimidineWhat is a double-ring structured nucleotide?purineWhat are the two strands of DNA held together by?hydrogen bondsWhat are the stop codons?UAA, UAG, UGAWhat is the start codon?AUG (Met)What is TFIIF involved in?initiationWhat is TFIIH involved in?initiation and elongationHow is TFIIH involved in elongation?releases RNA pol to begin elongation (leaves promoter)How is TFIIH involved in initiation?begins and ends itWhat is TFIID involved in?initiationWhat is a subunit of TFIID that allows TFIID to bind to the TATA box?TBP (TATA Box Binding Protein)When TFIID binds to the TATA box, what does it cause the DNA to do for initiation?bendWhat is the DNA sequence where homologues attach to the spindle apparatus?centromeresWhat ensures only 1 copy of each duplicated chromosome gets to each daughter cell?centromeresWhat is the DNA sequence where replication begins?replication originAt what location are DNA strands first pulled apart?replication originWhat nucleotides is the replication origin rich in?ATWhat is the sequence at the tips of chomosomes?telomeresWhat is the most tightly packed chromatin called?heterochromatinWhat is the least tightly packed chromatin called?euchromatinGenes in what type of chromatin are not expressed?heterochromatinWhat is just ahead of or 5' or upstream of the protein coding region?promoterWhat does RNA polymerase bind to?promoterWhat is the 3' end of the promoter known as?start siteWhat is the first nucleotide of the transcribed sequence (las nucleotide of the promoter)?start siteWhat signals the stop site is near?terminatorWhen are introns removed?after transcriptionWhat post-translational processes help transport mature mRNA out of nucleus and initiate translation?5' cap and polyadenylation of 3' tailWhat are mRNA sequences that encode each amino acid of a protein?genetic codeWhat is a bridge between the template (mRNA) and the new AA chain?tRNAWhat is it called when the anticodon has high fidelity for the first 2 nucleotides but not the third (which causes degeneracy)?wobble base pairingWhat is the binding of the 5' cap which replaces the CAP Binding Complex?translation initiation factorWhat is a discrete segment of DNA that is transcribed into RNA?transcriptional unitWhat binds to regulatory DNA sequences?gene regulatory proteinsWhat kind of gene regulatory protein turns genes off or downregulates?repressorsWhat kind of gene regulatory protein turns genes on or upregulates?activatorsWhat are DNA sequences within the promoter region that are the binding sites for regulatory proteins?operatorsWhat is regulated by both an activator and repressor?lac operonIn the lac operon, what is the effector molecule for the CAP protein?cAMPIn the lac operon, what is the effector molecule for the Lac Operon Repressor protein?allolactoseWhat assembles on promoters of all genes w/ RNA pol II during transcription?general transcription factorsWhat are regulatory proteins like repressors and activators?regulatory transcription factorsWhat must regulate chromatin packing during transcription: eukaryotes or prokaryotes?eukaryotesWhat are replication errors not found in proof reading?mis-match repairWhat are spontaneous or induced mutations that happen everyday?post replication errorsWhat are nonhomologous end joining?double strand breaksWhat type of mutations are spontaneous mutations and mutations induced by the environment?post replication mutations