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139 terms

Midterm

STUDY
PLAY
False
One of the criticisms of MyPyramid is that physical activity recommendations are not included.
True
Food labeling regulations allow manufacturers to omit the footnote of the Nutrition Facts Panel on smaller products.
Nutrition Facts Panel
The information provided on a food label that identifies intake of nutrients based on 2,000 calories a day is called the: Nutrition Fact Panel, Percent Daily Value, Daily Reference Value, Reference Daily Intake
True
Nutrient information required for food labels is based on an energy intake level of 2,000 calories a day.
True
The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) meet the nutrient needs of 97 to 98% of healthy people
wheat and lentils
Which of the following are examples of carbohydrate-rich foods? butter and corn oil, beef and pork, wheat and lentils, bacon and eggs
pellegra
Which of the following is an example of a disease that is directly caused by a nutritional deficiency? cancer, pellegra, heart disease, osteoporosis
true
One of the limitations of MyPyramid is that the portion recommendations may not be equal to the common sizes of foods Americans buy, prepare, and serve.
true
The earliest discoveries in the field of nutrition focused on nutritional deficiencies.
false
Over the past twenty years, obesity rates in the United States have not changed significantly.
false
Vitamins contain 4 kcal/gram
true
Fat is an important energy source for muscles during low-intensity exercise.
Steps to a Healthier You
________ is the slogan used by MyPyramid to encourage gradual improvements in diet and lifestyle. Five a Day to a Better Health, Steps to a Healthier You, You Are What You Eat, Take one day at a time
false
Because water doesn't provide any calories to the body, scientists do not consider it a nutrient.
true
Cholesterol is one form of fat that can be synthesized by the body.
false
The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) include an upper level of safety for all nutrients.
balance
Julie doesn't care for meat and poultry and restricts her intake of animal foods to only milk and yogurt sources. Which dietary guideline is Julie failing to practice? adequate, balance, value, moderation
moderation
Including fiber in your diet is beneficial to your GI tract, but consuming excess amounts of fiber can result in the loss of nutrients. This statement is an example of which of the following factors to consider in planning diets? adequecy, variety, calorie control, moderation
micronutrients found in a variety of foods
Which of the following BEST describes minerals? micronutrients that are broken down easily during digestion, micronutrients found in a variety of foods, micronutrients that are easily destroyed by heat and light, nutrients that are needed in large amounts by the body
all of these
According to MyPyramid, which of the following foods would count towards an individual's discretionary calorie allowance? butter, desserts, alcohol, all of these
EAR
The standard used to estimate the daily nutrient needs of half of all healthy individuals is: EAR, IA, RDA, UL
moderation
Jack is a college athlete who requires 2,800 kcal/day to support his total energy needs. Even though Jack likes many different foods and makes it a point to try new things, he consumes only approximately 1,600 kcal/day. Which one of the characteristics of a healthy diet is Jack missing? adequacy, balance, moderation, variety
false
The presence of any bacteria in the large intestine indicates a potentially serious systemic allergic reaction that can be fatal if left untreated.
true
Typically, ingested food remains in the stomach for 2 hours prior to traveling to the small intestine
kidneys
Which organ is NOT a regulator of satiety in the body?
true
Human beings can often override satiety.
false
The sigmoid colon is the last segment of the large intestine.
true
Since they do not require further digestion, dietary vitamins and minerals are small enough to be absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract.
a bowel disorder that interferes with the colon; no definite cause is known
What best describes irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
small intestine
The brush border is located in the:
true
Irritable bowel syndrome is more common among women than men
false
Diarrhea and dehydration are the most serious potential reactions when consuming an allergenic food product.
system
Digestion and absorption occur at the ________ level.
a physiological desire to find food and eat
Hunger is best described as:
false
Foods containing carbohydrate have the highest satiety value
pyloric
What is the name of the sphincter that separates the stomach from the small intestine?
protein
Pepsin is a gastric enzyme involved in the digestion of:
true
Understanding and retraining the stimuli of appetite is an important aspect of healthy weight loss.
atoms
The smallest units of matter that normally cannot be broken down are:
low glucose levels
Which physiological trigger(s) will result in the sensation of hunger?
false
The most common cause of GERD is an overly relaxed pyloric sphincter.
Salivary enzymes cannot function in the acid environment of the stomach
Which best explains why carbohydrate digestion ceases when food reaches the stomach?
false
Saccharin use is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in humans.
dietary fibers
What substances in plant foods that are NOT absorbed by the body?
dietary fibers
Which of the following are substances in plant foods that are NOT absorbed by the body?
diet containing insufficient carbohydrates
What is associated with the development of ketosis?
sucrose
Which of the following is a disaccharide? sucrose, fructose, galactose, glucose
insulin
After a meal, which hormone is responsible for moving glucose into the body's cells?
true
Alcohol consumption can result in hypoglycemia for people with diabetes.
true
When consumed, a high-glycemic-index food can cause a sudden rise in blood glucose levels.
sucralose
Sean is planning to bake a batch of chocolate chip cookies for his girlfriend. Which of the following artificial sweeteners would be the best substitute for the sugar in the recipe?
false
To reduce our risk for developing heart disease, we need to consume less fiber.
Because individuals do not produce any insulin, treatment always involves insulin therapy
Which of the following is TRUE regarding type 1 diabetes?
130 grams
How many grams of carbohydrate (per day) are recommended in healthy individuals (RDA)?
glucose
Diabetes is a condition in which the body doesn't process ________ properly.
the extent to which a given food raises blood glucose and insulin levels
Which of the following BEST describes the glycemic index?
muscles and liver
In the body, the major storage sites for glycogen are the:
glycogen
Found in liver and skeletal muscle cells, ________ is the storage form of glucose in animals.
false
Research has proven that alternative sweeteners are not safe for children.
glucose
Which of the following carbohydrates is the end product of photosynthesis?
false
The Tolerable Upper Intake Level for sugar is 100 grams a day.
People with PKU cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine
Individuals with the disease PKU (phenylketonuria) should not consume the artificial sweetener aspartame. Why?
false
Insulin therapy can be administered by an oral medication or by injection.
all of these
Glucose is the preferred source of energy for which of the following? brain cells, nerve cells, red blood cells, all of these
table sugar
When fructose and glucose are bonded together, they form:
false
Protection against heart disease is a potential benefit of a diet rich in simple sugar
glucagon
Which of the following hormones is released when your blood glucose levels fall too low?
triglycerides
________ are the major form of fat in both food and the body.
false
During times of inadequate intake, the body can synthesize all of the fat it needs.
triglycerides
What is the primary form of fat in the diet?
large intestine
All of the following organs assist in the digestion of lipids EXCEPT: liver, pancreas, large intestine, gallbladder
alpha-linolenic acid
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are metabolic derivatives of:
exercise
The production of endogenous VLDL is decreased by:
salmon
Which of the following foods is the richest source of omega-3 fatty acids?
false
Americans consume adequate omega-3 fatty acids but are deficient in omega-6 fatty acids.
20-35%
The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for fat is ________ of total energy intake.
increased blood cholesterol levels
Diets high in trans fatty acids are associated with:
29%
Yesterday Shannon consumed 1,840 kcal. Her meals included a total of 60 grams of fat. What percentage of calories of her day's intake came from fat?
false
Olive oil is a low-calorie alternative to butter and margarine.
olive and canola oils
Which of the following foods are rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids?
corn oil
Which of the following is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?
omega 3 fatty acids
Diets high in ________ have been shown to increase blood levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL).
These vitamins are insoluble in water and require fats for their transport.
How does fat consumption relate to vitamin A, D, E, and K intake?
estrogen
All of the following are examples of protein hormones EXCEPT:
mutual supplementation
The process of combining two incomplete proteins to make a complete protein is called:
true
High-protein diets may increase the risk of health problems.
soy
Tempeh, tofu, and miso are foods derived from:
false
Diets high in protein are associated with low blood cholesterol levels.
false
The pH of a substance or solution is determined by the nitrogen content
buffers
Which of the following proteins help maintain proper acid-base balance by attaching to or releasing hydrogen ions?
all of these
In the human body, proteins are found: muscle tissue, bone tissue, blood, all of these
amine group
The part of the protein molecule that carries nitrogen is the:
false
The DNA in our cells dictates the structure of body protein, carbohydrate, and fat molecules.
false
Complete proteins are primarily found in vegetable sources.
elevated blood cholesterol
Which of the following health problems has been associated with high protein intakes?
margarine and vegetable oils
Which foods are the richest sources of vitamin E?
increased consumption of fruits and vegetables.
Research studies have consistently demonstrated an association between a reduced risk of cancer and:
false
Diets rich in folate and vitamin B12 are associated with elevated blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine.
true
There are no known side effects associated with consuming large amounts of vitamin K from supplements or food.
beta carotene
What is NOT considered an essential nutrient?
a glass of orange juice
The doctor has recently told Julie that her iron stores are low. Julie should consume ________ with her iron supplement to increase its absorption.
flushing
What is the primary symptom of niacin toxicity?
It is often toxic when consumed in excess.
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding thiamin?
muscle wasting and nerve damage
Which of the following describes the main symptom(s) of beriberi?
vit C
Which water-soluble vitamin can regenerate vitamin E after it has been oxidized?
false
Research has clearly demonstrated that a deficiency of vitamin K causes osteoporosis.
large intestine
In addition to dietary sources, vitamin K is produced in the:
all of these
Which of the following organs is responsible for the synthesis of vitamin D? skin, liver, kidneys, all of these
false
Vitamin K deficiency is associated with an overgrowth of intestinal bacteria.
folate is needed for proper cell division
Why is folate critical to the health of a newly conceived embryo?
false
Acne is a symptom of a vitamin A deficiency.
false
Dairy products are good sources of vitamin E.
pre-menstrual syndrome
Which of the following conditions have vitamin B6 supplements been used to treat?
all of these
Which of the following diseases has been linked to free radical damage? heart disease, diabetes, cancer, all of these
thiamin
The first B-complex vitamin discovered was:
improving the absorption of vitamin C if dietary intake is low
Which of the following is NOT a function of vitamin E?
not a function of Vit E
improving the absorption of Vit C if dietary intakes are low
false
macronutrients are compounds that the body cannot make and must be obtained by food
fats
nutrient most energy dense
healthy eating pyramid
harvard school of health
riboflavin
destroyed when exposed to light
initiation
stage of development of cancer when DNA is mutated
heart disease
increase concentration of homocysteine in blood associated with development of
B12
cosumption of high levels of folate can mask ___ deficiency
glycogen
not a lipid!
essential fatty acid
one potential problem with very low fat diet is that it may be deficient in
chylomicrons
immediately following a high fat meal, specialized lipoproteins called ___ are created to transport dietary fat through blood
beta cells of the pancreas
in type 1 diabetes the ___ may be destroyed by an autoimmune disease
protect stomach cells from auto digestion
primary function of the mucus in the stomach
lipoproteins
transport vehicles for most lipids
micelles
immediately following a high-fat meal, specialized lipoproteins called ___ are created to transport dietary fat through the blood
false
people attempting to loose weight will be most successful if they limit their consumption of fat to less than 15% of kcal
three dimensional shape
function of protein is determined by
DNA in nucleus
dictates the structure of protein molecules synthesized by the body
vit C
not typically a nutrient concern for vegans
nerve cells
vit B12 essential for
atrophic gastritis
low stomach acid secretions
ariboflavinosis
deficency of riboflavin is
false
without adequate vit K our blood will clot excessively