Unit 9: Network Security (OSI)

Terms in this set (36)

1 The physical layer, the lowest layer of the OSI model, is concerned with the transmission and reception of the unstructured raw bit stream over a physical medium. It describes the electrical/optical, mechanical, and functional interfaces to the physical medium, and carries the signals for all of the higher layers.

2 The Data Link Layer: Main job is to move pkt to the next hop using the MAC address (src= curr hop, dst=next hop).
Physical addressing (MAC) and access to media. Two sublayers: Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC). It is the lowest layer at which meaning is assigned to the bits that are transmitted over the network. Data-link protocols address things, such as the size of each packet of data to be sent, a means of addressing each packet so that it's delivered to the intended recipient, and a way to ensure that two or more nodes don't try to transmit data on the network at the same time. The Data Link Layer also provides basic error detection and correction to ensure that the data sent is the same as the data received. If an uncorrectable error occurs, the data-link standard must specify how the node is to be informed of the error so it can retransmit the data. Each device on the network has an address known as the Media Access Control address, which is the actual hardware address, assigned to the device at the factory.

3. The Network Layer: Logical addressing and path determination. Routing. Reporting delivery errors. It handles the task of routing network messages from one computer to another. The two most popular Layer-3 protocols are IP (which is usually paired with TCP) and IPX (normally paired with SPX for use with Novell and Windows networks).

Layer 4: The Transport Layer: End-to-end connections and reliability. Segmentation / desegmentation of data in proper sequence. Flow control. The Transport Layer is the basic layer at which one network computer communicates with another network computer. The Transport Layer is where you'll find one of the most popular networking protocols: TCP. The main purpose of the Transport Layer is to ensure that packets move over the network reliably and without errors. The Transport Layer does this by establishing connections between network devices, acknowledging the receipt of packets, and resending packets that aren't received or are corrupted when they arrive. In many cases, the Transport Layer protocol divides large messages into smaller packets that can be sent over the network efficiently. The Transport Layer protocol reassembles the message on the receiving end, making sure that all packets contained in a single transmission are received and no data is lost.

Layer 5: The Session Layer
The Session Layer establishes sessions (instances of communication and data exchange) between network nodes. A session must be established before data can be transmitted over the network. The Session Layer makes sure that these sessions are properly established and maintained.

Layer 6: The Presentation Layer. Standard interface to data for the application layer. MIME encoding, data encryption, conversion, formatting, compression. The Presentation Layer is responsible for converting the data sent over the network from one type of representation to another. For example, the Presentation Layer can apply sophisticated compression techniques so fewer bytes of data are required to represent the information when it's sent over the network. At the other end of the transmission the Transport Layer then uncompresses the data. The Presentation Layer also can scramble the data before it's transmitted and then unscramble it at the other end, using a sophisticated encryption technique.

Layer 7: The Application Layer
The highest layer of the OSI model, the Application Layer, deals with the techniques that application programs use to communicate with the network. The name of this layer is a little confusing because application programs (such as Excel or Word) aren't actually part of the layer. Rather, the Application Layer represents the level at which application programs interact with the network, using programming interfaces to request network services. One of the most commonly used application layer protocols is HTTP, which stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol. HTTP is the basis of the World Wide Web.
Encryption can be performed at different communication levels, each with different types of protection and implications. Two general modes of encryption implementation are link encryption and end-to-end encryption. Link encryption encrypts all the data along a specific communication path, as in a satellite link, T3 line, or telephone circuit. Not only is the user information encrypted, but the header, trailers, addresses, and routing data that are part of the packets are also encrypted. The only traffic not encrypted in this technology is the data link control messaging information, which includes instructions and parameters that the different link devices use to synchronize communication methods. Link encryption provides protection against packet sniffers and eavesdroppers.
In end-to-end encryption, the headers, addresses, routing, and trailer information are not encrypted, enabling attackers to learn more about a captured packet and where it is headed.

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With end-to-end encryption, the packets do not need to be decrypted and then encrypted again at each hop, because the headers and trailers are not encrypted. The devices in between the origin and destination just read the necessary routing information and pass the packets on their way.

End-to-end encryption is usually initiated by the user of the originating computer. It provides more flexibility for the user to be able to determine whether or not certain messages will get encrypted. It is called "end-to-end encryption" because the message stays encrypted from one end of its journey to the other. Link encryption has to decrypt the packets at every device between the two ends.
At its most basic, an IDS device is passive, watching packets of data traverse the network from a monitoring port, comparing the traffic to configured rules, and setting off an alarm if it detects anything suspicious. An IDS can detect several types of malicious traffic that would slip by a typical firewall, including network attacks against services, data-driven attacks on applications, host-based attacks like unauthorized logins, and malware like viruses, Trojan horses, and worms. Most IDS products use several methods to detect threats, usually signature-based detection, anomaly-based detection, and stateful protocol analysis.

Active defense:
At its most basic, an IPS has all the features of a good IDS, but can also stop malicious traffic from invading the enterprise. Unlike an IDS, an IPS sits inline with traffic flows on a network, actively shutting down attempted attacks as they're sent over the wire. It can stop the attack by terminating the network connection or user session originating the attack, by blocking access to the target from the user account, IP address, or other attribute associated with that attacker, or by blocking all access to the targeted host, service, or application.

In addition, an IPS can respond to a detected threat in two other ways. It can reconfigure other security controls, such as a firewall or router, to block an attack. Some IPS devices can even apply patches if the host has particular vulnerabilities. In addition, some IPS can remove the malicious contents of an attack to mitigate the packets, perhaps deleting an infected attachment from an email before forwarding the email to the user.
1. Hub: repeat everything they receive and can be used to extend the network. However, this can result in a lot of unnecessary traffic being sent to all devices on the network. Hubs pass on traffic to the network regardless of the intended destination; the PCs to which the packets are sent use the address information in each packet to work out which packets are meant for them. In a small network repeating is not a problem but for a larger, more heavily used network, another piece of networking equipment (such as a switch) may be required to help reduce the amount of unnecessary traffic being generated.


2. In networks, a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments. Switches operate at the data link layer (layer 2) and sometimes the network layer (layer 3) of the OSI Reference Model and therefore support any packet protocol. LANs that use switches to join segments are called switched LANs or, in the case of Ethernet networks, switched Ethernet LANs. Switches control the flow of network traffic based on the address information in each packet. A switch learns which devices are connected to its ports (by monitoring the packets it receives), and then forwards on packets to the appropriate port only. This allows simultaneous communication across the switch, improving bandwidth.
This switching operation reduces the amount of unnecessary traffic that would have occurred if the same information had been sent from every port (as with a hub).

3. In networks, a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments. Switches operate at the data link layer (layer 2) and sometimes the network layer (layer 3) of the OSI Reference Model and therefore support any packet protocol. LANs that use switches to join segments are called switched LANs or, in the case of Ethernet networks, switched Ethernet LANs.
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