The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas
Terms in this set (42)
what spread through the Western world and profoundly influenced the arts and govt.
An "enlightened" problem- solving approach to govt. & society prevails in what?
modern civilization today
what became the area where enlightened ideas spread the fastest?
leading scholars of Europe contribute articles & essays to what?
what did Denis Diderot publish.. it was the first volume 1751
Why did the french govt. & catholic church challenge authority?
b/c they didn't approve of articles
did Denis eventually end up continuing to publish the Encyclopedia?
yes, he pushed on and finally won permission to continue.
what helped spread Enlightenment ideas to educated people all over Europe during this time..
salons and Encyclopedia
enlightenment thinkers shared their ideas through...
books, personal letters, visits, & magazine articles
1st time ideas spread..
ideas even reached what class? what could they afford then and became what?
it reached middle class and they could afford books and become patrons
what is a style of absolute monarchs---> Versailles
Johan Sebastian Bach (German), George Frederick Handel (English) were what people?
what was the enlightenment ideals of order & reason were reflected in the arts & music, & literature, & architecture..a.k.a new classical
where did they borrow ideas from ?
classical Greece and Rome
Music was called what during the time?
who developed the sonata and symphonies?
Franz Joseph Haydn
gifted child began composing music @ age 5 & gave concerts throughout Europe as a youth ---> 12 wrote his first opera only lived to 35 & wrote more than 600 musicals
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
wrote piano music, string quartets, and stirring symphonies
Ludwig Van Beethoven
18th century new forms of literature--->
lengthy works of prose fiction
books popular w/ wide middle class written in what?
what two people developed many features of modern novels--> crafted plots, used suspense & climax, & explored characters thoughts & feeling
Samuel Richardson & Henry Fielding
what was the name of the first novel by Richardson
who wrote Robinson Crusoe
absolute ruler or monarch that embraced ideas & made reforms that reflected the enlightenment spirit
they supported the philosophies' but had no intention to what...
no intention of giving up any power
what change did they make motivated by two desires
1. Wanted to make their countries stronger
2. their own rule more effective
what are examples of enlightened despots..
Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great, and Joseph 2nd
Frederick the Great was the king of what country? and he committed himself to what reforms?
he was the king of Prussia and..
3. improved education
4. justice system/ abolished use of torture
"the first servant of the state"- he made it clear that his goal was to strengthen & serve his country
who was the king of Austria and the son and successor of Maria Theresa
1.legal/freedom of press
2.freedom of worship( protestants, orthodox christians , & jews)
3.Abolished serfdom-peasants paid for their labor with cash
Many of joseph's reforms were ... after his death
who was the russian ruler; ruled as an absolute ruler
Catherine the great
what were some of her reforms
1.steps to modernize Russia
2. Commission to review Russia's laws--> religious toleration & abolishing torture & capital punishment( nothing changed)
3. End serfdom- after revolt changed her mind 1773
Catherine expands russia, how?
sought access to Black sea
what did she gain with the 2 wars with the Ottoman turks?
gained northern shore of black sea
Expanded boundaries into what?