Final Exam Study Set

_____ exists when different versions of the same data appear in different places.
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Terms in this set (333)
A data warehouse contains historical data obtained from the _____.operational databasesThe term _____ refers to an organization of components that define and regulate the collection, storage, management and use of data within a database environment.database system_____ provide a description of the data characteristics and the set of relationships that link the data found within the database.MetadataThe response of the DBMS to a query is the ___________query result set_____ is the body of information and facts about a specific subject.KnowledgeEnd-user data is _____.raw facts of interest to the end userA _____ is a logically connected set of one or more fields that describes a person, place, or thing.recordA workgroup database is a(n) _____ database.multiuserWhich of the following refers to the situation where different versions of the same data are stored at different places because they weren't updated consistently?Data redundancyMost data that can be encountered are best classified as _____.semistructuredA(n) _____ database is used by an organization and supports many users across many departments.enterprise_____ data exist in the format in which they were collected.UnstructuredData is said to be verifiable if:the data always yields consistent resultsThe _____ data model uses the concept of inheritance.object-oriented_____ are important because they help to ensure data integrity.ConstraintsThe _____ model was developed to allow designers to use a graphical tool to examine structures rather than describing them with text.entity relationshipWhich of the following is true of business rules?They can serve as a communication tool between the users and designers?In the _____ model, the basic logical structure is represented as an upside-down tree.hierarchialStudents and classes have a _____ relationship.many-to-manyA(n) _______ enables a database administrator to describe schema definition language (DDL)A verb associating two nouns in a business rule translates to a(n) _____ in the data model.relationshipA(n) _____'s main function is to help one understand the complexities of the real-world environment.modelA(n) _____ enables a database administrator to describe schema definition language (DDL)A noun in a business rule translates to a(n) _____ in the data model.entityA(n) _____ is anything about which data are to be collected and stored.entityWhich of the following is true of NoSQL databases? They do not support very large amounts of sparse data. They do not support distributed database architectures. They are not based on the relational model. They are geared toward transaction consistency rather than performance.They are not based on the relational model.The _____ model uses the term connectivity to label the relationship types.entity relationship_____ are normally expressed in the form of rules.ConstraintsA(n) _____ is the equivalent of a field in a file system.attributeMySQL is an example of the _____.relational data modelIn the _____ model, the user perceives the database as a collection of records in 1:M relationships, where each record can have more than one parent.networkA(n) _____ represents a particular type of object in the real world.entityA(n) _____ is a restriction placed on the data.constraintA(n) _____ is bidirectional.relationshipIn the relational model, _____ are important because they are used to ensure that each row in a table is uniquely identifiable.keysThe _____ relationship should be rare in any relational database design.1:1A _____ is the primary key of one table that has been placed into another table to create a common attribute.foreign key_____ are especially useful when you are trying to determine what values in related tables cause referential integrity problems.Outer joinsWhen you define a table's primary key, the DBMS automatically creates a(n) _____ index on the primary key column(s) you declared.uniqueReferential _____ dictates that the foreign key must contain values that match the primary key in the related table, or must contain null.integrity_____ logic, used extensively in mathematics, provides a framework in which an assertion (statement of fact) can be verified as either true or false.PredicateA(n) _____ only returns matched records from the tables that are being joined.inner joinEach table _____ represents an attribute.columnAnother name for a composite entity is a(n) _____ entity.bridgeA _____ is any key that uniquely identifies each row.superkeyDate attributes contain calendar dates stored in a special format known as the _____ date format.JulianWhen two or more tables share the same number of columns, and when their corresponding columns share the same or compatible domains, they are said to be _____.union-compatibleA(n) _____ is an orderly arrangement used to logically access rows in a table.indexA _____ contains at least all of the attribute names and characteristics for each table in the dictionaryThe CUSTOMER table's primary key is CUS_CODE. The CUSTOMER primary key column has no null entries, and all entries are unique. This is an example of _____ integrity.entityA _____ key is defined as a key that is used strictly for data retrieval purposes.secondary_____ relationships can be implemented by creating a new entity in 1:M relationships with the original entities.M:NThe _____ constraint can be placed on a column to ensure that every row in the table has a value for that column.NOT NULLA(n) _____ join links tables by selecting only the rows with common values in their common attribute(s).naturalThe _____ relationship is the "relational model ideal."1:MA _____ key can be described as a minimal superkey, a superkey without any unnecessary attributes.candidateA(n) _____ is the set of possible values for a given attribute.domainA _____ attribute can be further subdivided to yield additional attributes.compositeThe entity relationship model uses the associative entity to represent a(n) _____ relationship between two or more entities.M:NA _____ attribute is one that cannot be subdivided.simpleAn entity is said to be _____-dependent if it can exist in the database only when it is associated with another related entity occurrence.existenceThe conceptual model can handle _____ relationships and multivalued attributes.M:NA _____ entity has a primary key that is partially or totally derived from the parent entity in the relationship.weakThe decision to store _____ attributes in database tables depends on the processing requirements and the constraints placed on a particular application.derivedTo simplify the conceptual design, most higher-order relationships are decomposed into appropriate equivalent _____ relationships whenever possible.binaryA relationship is an association between _____.entities_____ expresses the minimum and maximum number of entity occurrences associated with one occurrence of the related entity.CardinalityIf an employee within an EMPLOYEE entity has a relationship with itself, that relationship is known as a _____ relationship.recursiveThe entity relationship diagram (ERD) represents the _____ database as viewed by the end user.conceptualThe Crow's foot symbol with two vertical parallel lines indicates _____ cardinality.(1,1)Ideally, an entity identifier is composed of _____ attribute(s).oneThe existence of a(n) _____ entity indicates that its minimum cardinality is zero.optionalIn the entity relationship diagram (ERD), cardinality is indicated using the _____ notation, where max is the maximum number of associated entities and min represents the minimum number of associated entities.(min, max)Knowing the minimum and maximum number of _____ occurrences is very helpful at the application software level.entityIf an entity can exist apart from all of its related entities, then it is existence-independent, and it is referred to as a(n) _____ entity.strongWhen the specific cardinalities are not included on the diagram in Crow's Foot notation, cardinality is implied by the use of _____.symbolsThe _____ notation of entity-relationship modelling can be used for both conceptual and implementation modelling.UMLA _____ relationship exists when an association is maintained within a single entity.unaryAt the implementation level, the supertype and its subtype(s) depicted in a specialization hierarchy maintain a(n) _____ relationship.1:1Nonoverlapping subtypes are subtypes that contain a(n) _____ subset of the supertype entity set.uniqueA _____ is a primary key created by a database designer to simplify the identification of entity instances.surrogate keyComposite primary keys are particularly useful as identifiers of composite entities, where each primary key combination is allowed only once in the _____ relationship.M:NAn entity cluster is formed by combining multiple interrelated entities into _____.a single abstract entity objectA(n)_____ is a generic entity type that is related to one or more entity subtypes.entity supertypeThe "_____" characteristic of a primary key states that the primary key must uniquely identify each entity instance, must be able to guarantee unique values, and must not contain nulls.unique valuesIn the context of total completeness, in a(n) _____, every supertype occurrence is a member of at least one subtype.overlapping constraintThe _____ depicts the arrangement of higher-level entity supertypes (parent entities) and lower-level entity subtypes (child entities).specialization hierarchyThe most important characteristic of an entity is its _____ key, used to uniquely identify each entity instance.primaryIn the context of total completeness, in a(n) _____, every supertype occurrence is a member of only one subtype.disjoint constraintIf one exists, a data modeler uses a _____ as the primary key of the entity being modeled.natural identifierA(n) _____ is the attribute in the supertype entity that determines to which entity subtype each supertype occurrence is related.subtype discriminatorA _____ key is a real-world, generally accepted identifier used to uniquely identify real-world objects.naturalThe purpose of an entity _____ is to simplify an entity-relationship diagram (ERD) and thus enhance its readability.clusterThe "_____" characteristic of a primary key states that the primary key should not have embedded semantic meaning.nonintelligentThe property of _____ enables an entity subtype to inherit the attributes and relationships of the supertype.inheritanceThe "_____" characteristic of a primary key states that the selected primary key must not be composed of any attribute(s) that might be considered a subtypes are subtypes that contain _____ subsets of the supertype entity set.nonuniqueWithin a specialization hierarchy, every subtype can have _____ supertype(s) to which it is directly related.only one_____ is the bottom-up process of identifying a higher-level, more generic entity supertype from lower-level entity subtypes.GeneralizationA specialization hierarchy can have _____ level(s) of supertype/subtype relationships.manyWhich of the following is a specialization hierarchy overlapping constraint scenario in case of partial completeness?Supertype has optional subtypes.The default comparison condition for the subtype discriminator attribute is the _____ comparison.equalityOne important inheritance characteristic is that all entity subtypes inherit their _____ key attribute from their supertype.primaryWhich of the following is a specialization hierarchy disjoint constraint scenario in case of partial completeness?Subtype discriminator can be null.According to the "preferably single-attribute" characteristic of a primary key, the primary key:should have the minimum number of attributes possible.Improving _____ leads to more flexible queries.atomicityA _____ derives its name from the fact that a collection of multiple entries of the same type can exist for any single key attribute occurrence.repeating groupIf a table has multiple candidate keys and one of those candidate keys is a composite key, the table can have _____ based on this composite candidate key even when the primary key chosen is a single attribute.partial dependenciesGranularity refers to _____.the level of detail represented by the values in a table's rowFrom a system functionality point of view, _____ attribute values can be calculated when they are needed to write reports or invoices.derivedThe most likely data type for a surrogate key is _____.numericA table that is in 2NF and contains no transitive dependencies is said to be in _____.3NFAn attribute that is part of a key is known as a(n) _____ attribute.primeNormalization works through a series of stages called normal forms. For most purposes in business database design, _____ stages are as high as you need to go in the normalization process.threeAn example of denormalization is using a _____ denormalized table to hold report data. This is required when creating a tabular report in which the columns represent data that are stored in the table as rows.temporaryA(n) _____ exists when there are functional dependencies such that Y is functionally dependent on X, Z is functionally dependent on Y, and X is the primary key.transitive dependencyDependencies based on only a part of a composite primary key are known as _____ dependencies.partial?An atomic attribute _____.cannot be further subdividedA relational table must not contain a(n) _____.repeating groupA table that has all key attributes defined, has no repeating groups, and all its attributes are dependent on the primary key is said to be in _____.1NFAttribute A _____ attribute B if all of the rows in the table that agree in value for attribute A also agree in value for attribute B.determinesA(n) _____ is an alternate name given to a column or table in any SQL statement.aliasThe SQL command that allows a user to permanently save data changes is _____.COMMITThe special operator used to check whether an attribute value matches a given string pattern is _____.LIKEThe SQL data manipulation command HAVING:restricts the selection of grouped rows based on a condition.Which is a feature of a correlated subquery?The outer subquery initiates the process of execution in a subquery.A(n) _____ join will select only the rows with matching values in the common attribute(s).naturalIn subquery terminology, the first query in the SQL statement is known as the _____ query.outerA(n) _____ join performs a relational product (also known as the Cartesian product) of two tables.crossThe syntax for a left outer join is _____.SELECT column-list FROM table1 LEFT [OUTER] JOIN table2 ON join-conditionThe special operator used to check whether an attribute value is within a range of values is _____.BETWEEN_____ is a relational set operator.EXCEPTWhich query is used to list a unique value for V_CODE, where the list will produce only a list of those values that are different from one another?SELECT DISTINCT V_CODE FROM PRODUCT;A(n) _____ query specifies which data should be retrieved and how it should be filtered, aggregated, and displayed.SELECTWhen using a(n) _____ join, only rows from the tables that match on a common value are returned.innerIf a designer wishes to create an inner join, but the two tables do not have a commonly named attribute, he can use a(n) _____ clause.JOIN ONThe special operator used to check whether a subquery returns any rows is _____.EXISTSThe SQL aggregate function that gives the number of rows containing non-null values for a given column is _____.COUNTThe _____ command defines a default value for a column when no value is given.DEFAULT_____ is a string function that returns the number of characters in a string value.LENGTHA(n) _____ join returns not only the rows matching the join condition (that is, rows with matching values in the common columns) but also the rows with unmatched values.outerThe _____ command restricts the selection of grouped rows based on a condition.HAVINGWhich comparison operator indicates a value is not equal?<>A(n) _____ is a query that is embedded (or nested) inside another query.subqueryThe _____ constraint assigns a value to an attribute when a new row is added to a table.DEFAULTA table can be deleted from the database by using the _____ TABLE command.DROPWhen a user issues the DELETE FROM tablename command without specifying a WHERE condition, _____.all rows will be deletedThe CREATE TABLE command lets you define constraints when you use the CONSTRAINT keyword, known as a(n) _____ constraint.tableWhen you create a new database, the RDBMS automatically creates the data _____ tables in which to store the metadata and creates a default database administrator.dictionaryThe _____ command permanently saves all changes—such as rows added, attributes modified, and rows deleted—made to any table in the database.COMMIT_____ is a cursor attribute that returns TRUE if the last FETCH returned a row, and FALSE if not.%FOUNDAll changes in a table structure are made using the _____ TABLE command, followed by a keyword that produces the specific changes a user wants to make.ALTERWords used by a system that cannot be used for any other purpose are called _____ words. For example, the word GROUP cannot be used to name tables or columns.reservedA(n) _____ cursor is automatically created in procedural SQL when the SQL statement returns only one value.implicitWhen writing SQL table-creating command sequences, the entire table definition is enclosed in _____.parenthesesSQL requires the use of the _____ command to enter data into a table.INSERTThe tables on which a view, or a virtual table derived from a SELECT query, are based are called _____ tables.baseWhat SQL construct could be used for automatically maintaining audit log data?triggersUsing the _____ command, SQL indexes can be created on the basis of any selected attribute.CREATE INDEXWhich command would be used to delete the table row where the P_CODE is 'BRT-345'?DELETE FROM PRODUCT WHERE P_CODE = 'BRT-345';The _____ specification creates an individual index on a respective attribute; use it to avoid having duplicated values in a column.UNIQUEThe _____ command is used to restore the database to its previous condition.ROLLBACKThe _____ constraint is used to validate data when an attribute value is entered.CHECKWhich SQL format would be best used for a small, numeric data type?SMALLINTYou cannot have an invalid entry in the foreign key column; at the same time, you cannot delete a vendor row as long as a product row references that vendor. This is known as _____.referential integrityA _____ is a block of code containing standard SQL statements and procedural extensions that is stored and executed at the DBMS server.persistent storage module (PSM)A _____ lock will lock the entire the wait/die scheme, the:older transaction waits for the younger one to complete and release its locks.?_____ requires that all operations of a transaction be completed.Atomicity_____ means that data used during the execution of a transaction cannot be used by a second transaction until the first one is completed.IsolationThe _____ approach to scheduling concurrent transactions assigns a global unique stamp to each transaction.time stampingA _____ lock allows concurrent transactions to access different rows of the same table.row-levelA(n) _____ lock exists when concurrent transactions are granted read access on the basis of a common lock.sharedANSI has defined standards that govern SQL database transactions. Transaction support is provided by two SQL statements _____ and ROLLBACK.COMMITIn the optimistic approach, during the_____ phase, a transaction scans the database, executes the needed computations, and makes the updates to a private copy of the database values.readA _____ lock will lock the entire table, preventing access to any row by a transaction while another transaction is using the table.table-levelAs long as two transactions, T1 and T2, access _____ data, there is no conflict, and the order of execution is irrelevant to the final outcome.unrelatedOf the following events, which is defined by ANSI as being equivalent to a COMMIT?The end of a program is successfully reached.In the optimistic approach, during the _____ phase, changes are permanently applied to the database.writeThe implicit beginning of a transaction is when _____.the first SQL statement is encountered_____ occurs when a transaction accesses data before and after one or more other transactions finish working with such data.Inconsistent retrievalOne of the three most common data integrity and consistency problems is _____.lost updatesThe transaction is a _____ unit of work that must be either entirely completed or aborted.logicalLock _____ indicates the level of lock use.granularityA(n) _____ condition occurs when two or more transactions wait for each other to unlock data.deadlockThe information stored in the _____ is used by the DBMS for a recovery requirement triggered by a ROLLBACK statement, a program's abnormal termination, or a system failure such as a network discrepancy or a disk crash.transaction logA(n) _____ phase in a two phase lock is when a transaction releases all locks and cannot obtain a new lock.shrinkingA(n) _____ specifically reserves access to the transaction that locked the object.exclusive lockOf the following events, which is defined by ANSI as being equivalent to a ROLLBACK?All changes are aborted and returned to a previous consistent state.The _____ manager is responsible for assigning and policing the locks used by transactions.lockA diskpage, or page, is the equivalent of a _____.diskblockA consistent database state is one in which all integrity constraints are satisfiedWhat rule applies to the two-phase locking protocol?Two transactions cannot have conflicting lock._____ are required to prevent another transaction form reading inconsistent data.LocksThe data cache is where the data read from the database data files are stored _____ the data have been read or _____ the data are written to the database data files.after; beforeIn standard SQL, the optimizer hint FIRST_ROWS is generally used for _____ mode processes.interactiveIn standard SQL, the optimizer hint ALL_ROWS is generally used for _____ mode processes.batchFrom the performance point of view, _____ databases eliminate disk access is the central activity during the parsing phase in query processing.Query optimizationThe data cache or _____ is a shared, reserved memory area that stores the most recently accessed data blocks in RAM.buffer cacheThe DBMS _____ the SQL query and chooses the most efficient access/execution plan.parsesThe majority of primary memory resources will be allocated to the _____ cache.dataThe _____ must be set large enough to permit as many data requests to be serviced from cache as cacheThe _____ process analyzes SQL queries and finds the most efficient way to access data.optimizerAutomatic query optimization means that the:DBMS finds the most cost-effective access path without user intervention.If there is no index, the DBMS will perform a _____ scan.full tableThe _____ is a shared, reserved memory area that stores the most recently executed SQL statements or PL/SQL procedures, including triggers and functions.procedure cache_____ refers to the number of different values a column could possibly have.Data sparsityA(n) _____ is a logical grouping of several data files that store data with similar characteristics.table spaceThe _____ cache is used as a temporary storage area for ORDER BY or GROUP BY operations, as well as for index-creation functions.sortKnowing the sparsity of a column helps you decide whether the use of _____ is indexTo work with data, a DBMS must retrieve the data from _____ and place them in _____.permanent storage; RAMOn the server side, the database environment must be properly configured to respond to clients' requests in the fastest way possible, while making optimum use of existing resources. The activities required to achieve this goal are commonly referred to as _____ tuning.DBMS performanceWhen setting optimizer hints, _____ instructs the optimizer to minimize the overall execution time, that is, to minimize the time it takes to return the total number of rows in the query result set. This hint is generally used for batch mode processes.ALL_ROWSA DBA determines the initial size of the data files that make up the database; however, as required, the data files can automatically expand in predefined increments known as _____.extentsDuring the ____ phase, the DBMS retrieves the data and sends the result set back to the client.fetchOn the client side, the objective is to generate an SQL query that returns a correct answer in the least amount of time, using a minimum amount of resources at the server end. The activities required to achieve this goal are commonly referred to as _____ tuning.SQL performanceWhen moving data from permanent storage to RAM, an I/O disk operation retrieves a(n):entire physical disk block.A centralized database management is subject to a problem such as _____.growing numbers of remote locations_____ transparency allows the system to operate as if it were a centralized database management system.Performance_____ fragmentation refers to the division of a relation into subsets of tuples.HorizontalA distributed _____ can reference several different local or remote data processing sites.transactionA _____ request lets a single SQL statement reference data located at several different local or remote DP sites.distributed_____ is the delay imposed by the amount of time required for a data packet to make a round trip from point A to point B.Network latency_____ transparency is the highest level of transparency. The end user or programmer does not need to know that a database is partitioned.FragmentationDuring _____ data allocation, the database is divided into two or more disjointed parts (fragments) and stored at two or more sites.partitionedDistributed processing does not require:an existing distributed database._____ transparency allows data to be updated simultaneously at several network sites.TransactionThe _____ guarantees that if a portion of a transaction operation cannot be committed, all changes made at the other sites participating in the transaction will be undone to maintain a consistent database state.two-phase commit protocol (2PC)A _____ lets a single SQL statement access the data that are to be processed by a single remote database processor.remote requestA disadvantage of a distributed database management system (DDBMS) is:lack of standardsThe objective of _____ optimization is to minimize the total cost associated with the execution of a request.queryThe _____ rule requires that all copies of data fragments be consistency_____ transparency allows a physically dispersed database to be managed as though it were centralized.Distribution_____ fragmentation allows a user to break a single object into two or more segments, or fragments.DataA(n) _____ database stores each database fragment at a single site.unreplicatedA distributed database is composed of several parts known as database _____.fragmentsA distributed _____ contains the description of the entire database as seen by the database dictionaryWhich property of the CAP theorem assumes that all transaction operations take place at the same time in all nodes, as if they were executing in a single-node database?Consistency_____ fragmentation refers to the division of a relation into attribute subsets.Vertical_____ transparency exists when the end user or programmer must specify the database fragment names but does not need to specify where these fragments are located.LocationThe basic star schema has four components: facts, _____, attributes, and attribute hierarchies.dimensionsA(n) _____ is optimized for decision support and is generally represented by a data warehouse or a data store_____ are in charge of presenting data to the end user in a variety of ways.Data visualization toolsThe attribute hierarchy provides a top-down data organization that is used for two main purposes: _____ and drill-down/roll-up data analysis.aggregation_____ tools focus on the strategic and tactical use of information.Business intelligenceData _____ implies that all business entities, data elements, data characteristics, and business metrics are described in the same way throughout the enterprise.integrationData visualization has its roots in the _____ sciences, which focus on how the human brain receives, interprets, organizes, and processes information.cognitive_____ splits a table into subsets of rows or columns and places the subsets close to the client computer to improve data access time.PartitioningIn business intelligence framework, data are captured from a production system and placed in _____ on a near real-time warehouseA _____ index is based on 0 and 1 bits to represent a given condition.bitmappedOperational data are commonly stored in many tables, and the stored data represents information about a given _____ only.transactionThe reliance on _____ as the design methodology for relational databases is seen as a stumbling block to its use in OLAP systems.normalizationIn a star schema, attributes are often used to search, filter, or classify _____.factsThe _____ schema must support complex (non-normalized) data representations.decision support databaseFrom a data analyst's point of view, decision support data differ from operational data in three main areas: time span, granularity, and _____.dimensionalityWhich type of data describes numeric facts or measures that can be can be counted, ordered, and aggregated?quantitativeDecision support data tends to be non-normalized, _____, and pre-aggregated.duplicatedWhich of the following is NOT one of the standard NoSQL categories?Chart databasesDocument databases group documents into logical groups called ______.collections______ is keeping the same number of systems, but migrating each system to a larger system.Scaling upA(n) ______ is a tag that is used to associate a collection of nodes as being of the same type or belonging to the same group.labelIn the context of Big Data, ______ relates to changes in meaning.variability______ is NOT one of the "3 Vs" of Big Data.ValidationIn the context of Big Data, ______ refers to the trustworthiness of a set of data.veracity______ minimizes the number of disk reads necessary to retrieve a row of data.Row-centric storageA query in a graph database is called a ______.traversalModeling and storing data about relationships is the focus of ______ databases.graphGraph theory is a mathematical and computer science field that models relationships, or edges, between objects called ______.nodesBig Data ______.captures data in whatever format it naturally existsWhat is an advantage of a Wide-Column Database?Can store large amount of data in a single columnWhat is an advantage of a Full-Text Search Database?Text seraches on dataWhat does the C in CAP represent?ConsistencyWhat is an advantage of a Graph Database?Clear and manageable representation of relationshipsWhat does the A in CAP represent?AvailabilityWhat is an advantage of a Document DatabaseStructure of individual documents don't have to be consistentWhat is an advantage of a Time Series Database?Time based queriesWhat does the P in CAP represent?Partition ToleranceWhich of the following is polyglot persistence?Uses multiple data storage technologiesWhat is an advantage of a Key-Value DatabaseValues can be anything, including JSON, flexible schemasAt the level of middle management, the database must be able to provide necessary for tactical decisions and planning"A password must have a minimum of five characters" is an example of a _____.standardCoordinating, monitoring, and allocating database administration resources is included in a DBA's _____ role.managerialWhen introducing a database into an organization, the database approach creates a more controlled and structured information flow and thus affects people, functions, and interactions. This leads to a(n) _____ impact of the new database system.cultural_____ deals with ensuring that data is protected against unauthorized access, and if the data are accessed by an authorized user, that the data are used only for an authorized purpose.Confidentiality_____ security breaches include database access by computer viruses and by hackers whose actions are designed to destroy or alter data.CorruptingInstructions to create a password are an example of a _____.procedure_____ are more detailed and specific than policies and describe the minimum requirements of a given DBA activity.Standards"All users must have passwords" is an example of a _____.policyThe person responsible for the control of the centralized and shared database is the database _____.administratorUser-access management is a subset of _____.authorization managementIn the context of database usage monitoring, a(n) _____ is a file that automatically records a brief description of the database operations performed by all users.audit logWhen performing user access management, a DBA defines each user to the database at the _____ levels.operating system and DBMSThe only way to access the data in a database is through the DBMS.TrueMetadata describe the data characteristics and the set of relationships that links the data found within the database.TrueM:N relationships are not appropriate in a relational model.TrueThe relational model is hardware-dependent and software-independent.FalseCharacter data can contain any character or symbol intended for mathematical manipulation.FalseIf the attribute (B) is functionally dependent on a composite key (A) but not on any subset of that composite key, the attribute (B) is fully functionally dependent on (A).TrueTo implement a small database, a database designer must know the "1" and the "M" sides of each relationship and whether the relationships are mandatory or optional.TrueA composite identifier is a primary key composed of more than one attribute.TrueA design trap occurs when a relationship is improperly or incompletely identified and is therefore represented in a way that is not consistent with the real world.TrueOverlapping subtypes are subtypes that contain a unique subset of the supertype entity set.FalseA table is in BCNF if every determinant in the table is a foreign key.FalseEvaluation of database performance is rendered easier by the fact there are no standards to measure it.FalseThe COUNT function is designed to tally the number of non-null "values" of an attribute, and is often used in conjunction with the DISTINCT clause.TrueAll SQL commands must be issued on a single line.FalseJust like database triggers, stored procedures are stored in the database.TrueStored procedures must have at least one argument.FalseIn the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC), problems defined during the planning phase are examined in greater detail during the analysis phase.TrueThe testing and evaluation phase of the Database Life Cycle (DBLC) occurs after applications programming.FalseA shared lock produces no conflict as long as all the concurrent transactions are read-write only.FalseThe serializable isolation level is the least restrictive level defined by the ANSI SQL standard.FalseThe SQL cache stores the end-user written SQL.FalseWorking with data in the data cache is many times faster than working with data in the data files.TrueA fully distributed database management system (DBMS) must perform all the functions of a centralized DBMS, and it must handle all necessary functions imposed by the distribution of data and processing.TrueA transaction processor (TP) is the software component residing on each computer that stores and retrieves data located at the site.FalsePeriodicity, usually expressed as current year only, previous years, or all years, provides information about the time span of the data stored in a table.TrueMaster data management's main goal is to provide a partial and segmented definition of all data within an organization.FalseUnder the HDFS system, using a write-one, ready-many model simplifies concurrency issues.True​Scaling out is keeping the same number of systems, but migrating each system to a larger one.FalseA passive data dictionary is one that is updated automatically with every database access to keep its access information up to date.FalseThe DBA is responsible for ensuring that the data are distributed to the right persons, at the right time, and in the right format.True