APUSH Period 4

The Election of 1800
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Jefferson is upset with Adams over the Alien and Sedition Acts, Adams presidency broke their friendship. John Adams runs for president again as a federalist. John Jay also runs as a federalist. Jefferson runs as a republican. Aaron Burr also runs as a republican. Hamilton badmouths Adams for how he handled the XYZ affair and a lot of federalists aren't sure where to cast their vote. Adams gets 65 electoral votes. Jefferson gets 73 and Aaron Burr gets 73. Because of the tie the House of Reps has to decide who the pres will be. there's a lot of federalists in the House at this time and Hamilton has a lot of influence in who they will pick. he advocates for Jefferson because out of the two of them, he dislikes Jefferson's views a little less than Burr. Burr is pissed and has to be VP. 12th amendment is added saying that the president and VP have to run separately and as a team to avoid any hard feelings and rivalry between two people who are supposed to run together.
in the months before Jefferson was elected but not sworn in as pres, Adams still had power, and he got congress to pass the judiciary act. He wants the judiciary branch to stay under the control of the federalistsl. 1. added to the number of federal judges/courts in the country, federal judges are appointed and stay there. 2. reduces supreme court justices by 1 so jefferson couldn't replace the one retiring and therefore federalists would still have majority. he had 5 months to appoint all these new judges, and there were people still waiting to get the paperwork for their judge jobs up until the night before jefferson's inauguration hence why they're called "Midnight Judges". John Marshall is Adam's Secretary of State and makes sure he gets his job as Supreme Court Justice, and he's one of the strongest federalists to be in this position.
the case that makes the supreme court one of the most powerful branches. key players: James Madison (Jefferson names Madison his secretary of state), Marbury (was supposed to get a job as a federal court justice but he never got his paperwork in time) Marbury is mad because Jefferson would not let Madison deliver the paperwork. he goes directly to the supreme court. usually issues like this go through the chain of command before they get to the supreme court, but he was able to take it here because of GW's Judiciary Act of 1789 when he put the "writ" of mandamus in the act, which gave the supreme court the right to force a gov't official to do their job. the court could force Madison to deliver the papers. John Marshall, Chief Justice, uses this case as an opportunity to make the supreme court incredibly powerful. it is one of the biggest power grabs in U.S history. Marshall says he can use the Judiciary Act as unconstitutional. If anything comes to the Supreme Court, they can override congress and the president, but only if the issue come to them. SC could now determine if something federally is unconstitutional, it's the reason SC can overturn stuff.
he believed the nation's strength was in agriculture, not industry. he envisioned us being "the bread basket of the world" because countries around the globe would be required to trade with us and have good relations if we were providing all the food. he wanted to keep tariffs low on imported goods and he made a lot of budget cuts, especially in the military, which eventually comes back later to bite him in thy behind (quizlet won't let me use the A word unfortunately)
pirates had been getting paid for passage through the Mediterranean, 20% of the budget had been going here under GW and Adams. Jefferson cuts this which angers the pirates. he commands what he has left of the Navy to defend ships in the Mediterranean but the pirates end up taking one of our ships "The Philadelphia" and it's crew hostage. Jefferson ends up paying pirates $60K to get the crew back and to bind that pirating is over, which solves the problem. he realizes he needs a branch of the military that can do it all on land and sea and creates the Marines!
Jefferson sent Monroe to purchase New Orleans from Napoleon who bought the land from Spain. Napoleon is kinda getting his rump kicked in the war during the Haiti revolution and realizes he doesn't need the land more than he needs money. Monroe offers $2 million. Napoleon offers entire Louisiana territory, 530 million acres of land for $15 million. nowhere in the constitution does it say who can buy land, we're against the idea of empire/buying people, so Jefferson contends by calling it "Empire of Liberty" because this deal is such a steal. he approves it before even asking congress. federalists because all of a sudden here's Jefferson not being as strict about the constitution like a lil hypocrite. but they're not mad for long since it really was such a good deal.
Clark was hired by Jefferson to spy on the Louisiana territory and find out who lives there, what's going on over there, and to try and get the people to be okay with being part of the U.S. Clark takes Lewis with him as a co-commander. they go peacefully, the goal is not violence, and along the way befriend many native tribes and the french people who also live in this area. they stay with an agriculture based tribe during the winter and befriend Sacajawea who travels with them out West, along the way befriending more tribes through her ability to speak many of the languages in the area. the expedition was a success and proved we could peacefully coexist with natives, and that trade in this area would be a success.
GB starts taking our ships because they told us we couldn't send stuff to France. France told us we couldn't send ships to GB first. Brits treat our ship crews terrible. Jefferson doesn't want to go to war with either country. the Chesapeake Attack is a turning point, the Cheseapeake ship is stopped just off the shore of Virginia, they say no to stopping and the Brits fire and almost sink the ship. the US sees this as an attack on us.
Embargo Act 1807Jefferson stops trade with the world to stop issues. finances and the economy crashes. financially bringing in $109 million per year by crops and materials, which gets dropped to $22 million. we only got this money by smuggling, or trading with only Canada or South America. the hardest hit is New England because they make money by shipping goods and making ship parts mostly.War Hawksthere is a shift from men who fought in the revolution era to the younger men born under the nation and who want to fight for the respect of the country. called "War Hawks" because they see the attacks on the US as disrespectful and they want to fight back. they also want harsher treatment of the natives in the West. they find a way to connect the natives to the Brits for an excuse to attack them. by 1810 there is a huge number of republican war hawks. by midterms they are in congress. Henry Clay from Kentucky is in the house of representatives, and he gets made Speaker of the House with no experience. John Calhoun is a war hawk and is very significant laterThe Prophet and Tehcumsehnatives are pushed to Indiana and need to coexist suddenly with other tribes. lots of depression and alcohol abuse. one of the leaders of the Shawnee tribe becomes extremely sick and almost drinks himself to death, he has a fever dream/prophetic dream and believed he died and was brought back by the Master of Life who told him he was spared so he could inspire religion and culture in his people. he changes his name to Tenskwatawa and is referred to as "The Prophet" (derogatory) by the white people. he did great things for his people and established Prophet's Town. he preaches to his people to remain non-violentTecumsehTenskwatawa's older brother, he doesn't necessarily believe in his brother's naive ideas, he uses logic to encourage as many native tribes as he can to be united in an alliance. the main objective isn't to fight, but he encourages the alliance in case they have to fight. he tells them not to sign anything away to the white man. rumors of Tehcumseh reach the white man and rumors are spread saying he is working for the British, and the Americans hate him for this. William Henry Harrison is the governor of Indiana, he's a War Hawk, and he's very anti Tehcumseh. he believes the natives need to be pushed out. he wants war with Britain so they can defend US honor but he also sees it as an excuse to attack the natives.Election of 1808Jefferson's time as pres is up. he encourages Madison to run for pres. republicans vote him in because they trust Jefferson, who is advocating for him. the first thing he does when he gets into office is repeal the embargo and open the economy back upNon-Intercourse Act 1809allowed trade but it cut off only Britain and France. the economy doesn't improve much because of this, a lot of our crops and supplies go to these two places and we have to figure out how to be more industrial because of this, which supports Hamilton's visionMacon's Bill 1810non-intercourse act was set to end at some point, but it was replaced and opened up trade with britain and france at the merchant's own risk. if either france or britain agrees to open blockades and trade and promise not to attack, they would get complete access to our trade and we'd cut the other country off. trade bid, Napoleon takes it. he wants to get america on his side so that he can eventually screw the US overFort Wayne Treaty 1809has to do with the natives. while Tehcumseh is out talking to tribes 3 tribes make treaties with the US govt. they had genuine fear of the white man and they also don't understand money. the 3 tribes are bribed $5,200 to split between them, they signed away 3 million acres of land that was not theirs to sell. Tehcumseh goes straight to Harrison and tells him that the land he was given legally is not his. he then goes to tell the other tribes they will fight for the land.Battle of Tippecanoe 1811Harrison burns Prophet's Town to the ground when Tecumseh isn't there to defend it. The Prophet is killed. Harrison is hailed a hero across the nation because the natives are associated with the brits. Madison finally decides to go to war because Tehcumseh decides to actually side with the brits after years of being accused.Mr. Madison's WarWar of 1812. madison is the first president to request to congress a declaration of war. his reasons for war: 1 Freedom of the Seas: should be able to trade things on water. 2 Natives extension of Brits. 3: alludes to getting more land 4: claims it is a second war for independence without France. not a unanimous vote but he gets the okay. issue of where to start the war. can't send troops to Britain to start fighting.Onto Canadaif we take certain cities in Canada, natives can't trade. it's an unorganized mess. our military is small and lacks training. local militias assist but it only makes the situation worse. first target is Montreal. we lose miserably. we finally realize after many more losses that we need to start fighting on the Great Lakes. we have more ships there than the Brits. Congress realizes we need a bigger army.Perry and Harrison's Successthese men have the first success in the war. Perry sinks British fleet on Lake Eerie. as a result, Harrison can push Brits out of Detroit, and then he can attack the natives knowing they can't get support from Brits. Natives start going home because it's winter, and this is when Harrison attacks. Oct 1813 Battle of Thames. brutal, natives held their own. Tehcumseh is killed. the white people take his body and mutilate him terribly. makes the US feel successful.Beheading Fails AgainNapoleon loses in France. by mid 1814 British fleet is heading for the US which isn't good. they head for NY. they realize they need supplies, which are in Canada. they want to cut off our waterways. they didn't expect to be met with the navy and army on Lake Champlain, which was our longest river, so we fortified it because we knew the brits would head here trying to do what they did in the revolutionary war- cut New England off from the rest of the country.Chesapeake becomes the focuswe had sent almost all of the military to Champlain, but now the Brits were headed for Chesapeake. Our military doesn't get to Washington D.C. in time, they make it to a town outside DC (Bladensburg) because it makes sense for the brits to land there. 6,000 brits start marching to DC and Madison gets word and evacuates the entirety of DC. he was concerned about the founding documents and had them folded up and sent somewhere for hiding. the brits get to washington and completely destroy it and burn it to the ground. Dolly Madison stays behind until the last second to try and save any important pictures and documents to have proof that America existed because she truly felt the US was going to be destroyed. a super hurricane tornado mix comes through and is the reason the brits get scared and retreat.Baltimoreno real evidence that they were headed to Baltimore but it seemed logical that the brits would head here next. Fort McHenry blocked the entrance to Baltimore harbor. Brits built it when they controlled us. Brits split men. half will walk up the peninsula, half will go by water. between people in Baltimore, the militias, and the military, the US fortifies the city. merchants protected the water by purposely sinking their ships to prevent british ships from passing into harbor. 2 massive flags were constructed to communicate in the war. Francis Scott Key is on board one of the american ships that gets taken hostage by the brits (he ends up writing the national anthem about this battle). the brits attack us for hours thinking they're beating us, and then when their resources are exhausted we replace the war torn flag with the new one and absolutely annihilate the brits. they retreat because they're so tired of fighting in the war.New Orleansafter brits ask for a cease fire the biggest battle of the war happens because Andrew Jackson hadn't been told the war was over. they absolutely wreck the britsRed Stick AttackCreek Native Tribe in Alabama is upset about the mutilation of Tehcumseh. late 1813 they attack the largest community of Alabamians. the Creeks attack and kill all 300 Alabamians. as a result a large group of angry Tennessee men mobilize and drop to assist Andrew Jackson in New Orleans. they want to help Jackson take out the brits and natives as revenge. he gathers slaves who want to help fight, even some natives. Jackson is very persuasive. some French even help too. quick fight brutal lots of brits killed.Treaty of Ghentdid nothing. all we asked of Britain was that they leave the forts in the West that they never left after the revolution. what did the us gain? 1 a bigger military. we realized we need one. 2. needed a bigger budget to prepare for things and to help economics we don't print off money, we borrow it. now that the war is over the US gets to focus on itself and its internal problems. we gain global respect and start to grow industryHamilton Killed = Federalists take a hitone of the strongest federalist founding fathers is killed in a duel with Aaron Burr. this kills the federalist party and for a while, gets rid of the polar divide between political parties in America.Era of Good Feelingsthe country realizes political parties is causing a divide. after the victory of the War of 1812, there is an increase in feelings of patriotism, DC is rebuilt, there in an increase in military, and for a few years the country is generally in agreement about most thingsHartford Conventiondeath of political parties is caused by Hamilton's death. convention happens during the war. many new england reps meet in hartford to discuss the embargo and how they don't support the war. their resolution was to send a request to the federal gov't to pay for the pain they (gov't) caused by the war (think stimulus checks in light of covid) asked the constitution be amended to require 2/3 majority in congress support of embargo in future wars. rumors spread that NE wants to become its own nation. because of the super patriotic era of the country these rumors of treason cause the death of the federalists. everyone claims to be a nationalist instead.National Politics GrowMadison pushes through w nationalistic republican agenda. as long as one region is not benefited more than another, the federal gov't can do things to benefit the whole nation. asks congress to give some economic aid to New England. he goes against the Brits because he knows they will try to come after our economy. he says we need to start producing more of our own goods. he sees the need for industry and raising tariffs to block out British goods. puts a lot of power into Henry Clay because he also wants the country to thrive. Clay develops "The American System"Three Prong PlanClay's plan. he sees the south produces raw materials and staple crops. they're starting to utilize cotton. early 1800s cotton starts to get popular. he wanted raw materials to be grown in south to be sent to industrialized north so we don't need to send materials outside of the country. west used to feed people. would create a sustainable economy where we can survive without the rest of the globe. nowhere else in the world can do that.Bank of United StatesBUS. part of Clay's plan. Hamilton's bank charter expired. agree we need bank and national currency. state private banks still print their own money but BUS dollars are widely accepted. congress approves the bank.Protected Tariff2nd part of the plan. proposes tariff of 20-25% to protect businesses. republicans would have said no, but it passes. additional funds go toward the 3rd part of the planInternal Improvement3rd part of the plan. very little has been spent to improve the country internally. wanted the money to be used to improve infrastructure (roads between states so horses can travel) and also building canals. boats are faster than horses. a lot of the money is going to have to go between West-North. farmers in the south didn't have to do as much to produce goods as in the north. Calhoun proposes "Cumberland gap/road" to connect the north-south through Appalachian mountains. big project lots of money. Madison veto this because of his republican ideas and its too much money in one region. he doesn't believe in spending more money in one part of the country than another. Clay fixes problem with compromise. good at balance. road will make it easy to access south from the capitol, divides mountain range, makes it easier to get mail, and Clay convinces Madison. issue now is states control their own transportation. NY builds Eerie Canal and believes they could have control over it.Judicial EraJohn Marshall appointed by Adams for decades refusing to let federalist party die. Supreme Court has the power to find things unconstitutional on state level.Fletcher v Peck1810. first time a state was found unconstitutional. 1795 Georgia state legislature passed a land grant giving territory to 4 companies. the legislature was bribed to vote in the grant. in 1800, John Peck had acquired land during the original grant and sold this land to Robert Fletcher, claiming the sale of the land was legitimate. Fletcher argued it wasn't because the original sale of the land had been voided, and Peck had no legal claim to the land anymore. Fletcher sued Peck because he lied and claimed the sale was unconstitutional. in 1810 the case was brought to the supreme court and the question was raised of whether or not the supreme court could rule on state legislature. the court ruled in favor of peck because he was an "innocent 3rd party" to the Georgia state legislature. the voiding of the original act was deemed unconstitutional. long term significance: determined states could not create a law/contract with people and then vote to remove the contract because it was a violation of the rights of the people.Dartmouth v Woodward1819. during the colonies NH got a charter saying Dartmouth could be a private college, but in 1817 NH wanted to make Dartmouth public. Webster was a lawyer for trustees (trustees were put in place to protect the school) who want Dartmouth to be private. Woodward was the secretary of Dartmouth and he stole documents to try and get Dartmouth to be public. the trustees sought to have state legislature declare that making Dartmouth public is unconstitutional because the govt taking private property is bad. the supreme court ruled that NH violated contract laws. they said that prior contract with the trustees and the charter was still valid and that NH couldn't take away Dartmouth's private school-ness because Dartmouth was created before NH was a state. a state can't break a contract with people and violate rights. significance: all contracts before the constitution are valid and upheld. also separation of church and state.McCulloch v Maryland1819. Maryland wanted to tax the 2nd national bank which had been put in Maryland. McCulloch runs the bank and refuses to have the bank pay tax, claims it is unconstitutional. Maryland wanted to tax the bank for being in MD, but since it is a federal structure, they can't. Supreme court rules fed govt can put the bank in any state and the state cannot tax this institution. significance: established that the federal court will always win because of the supremacy clause. the fed govt will always win against state laws. the fed govt will always have more power.Cohen v. Virginia2 brothers run a lottery store in VA, state says they can't sell out of state tickets, they can only sell VA lottery tickets. Cohen brothers are hired to sell tickets for DC. Virginia tried to fine them $100 and the brothers brought it to the supreme court claiming they were protected under Free Flow of Commerce. the court decides VA wins because they can pass laws about lottery because technically it's not trade, it's gambling. the brothers end up being fined $100. VA went to court and defense was that the fed govt doesn't have the right to get involved in a criminal case regarding a state. however, anytime a criminal case involves violation of constitutional rights, it goes to the supreme court.Gibbons v Ogden1798 NY gave Livingstein and Fulton a monopoly over steamboat navigation between NY and NJ. 1815 Ogden purchased rights to the monopoly and became the only person who could operate steam boats in NY. in 1819 Ogden sued Gibbons because he had federal permission to have steamboats on the water. 1820 Ogden won his case in the NY state court and in 1824 Gibbons brought this state ruling to the supreme court, where they rule the decision unconstitutional because NY had no right to give ogs Livingstein and Fulton monopoly over the interstate commerce because only the federal govt can control that. a state can't have sole control over interstate commerce. significance: allows American system to function because no state can control transportation to another state. states can charge tolls, but they can't prevent transportation through a state entirely.Missouri Compromisebefore the revolution we established 9 new states. when the land exhausted itself thanks to land abuse, people would just move on and find new land. 1819 the first state to apply for statehood and cause issues is Missouri. everything in its constitution was fine, except they wanted to be a slave state, which would disrupt the balance between free states and slave states. having 2 extra slave state members in senate would make votes in favor of the south. there needed to be changes made regarding how states can become states, one congressman suggested emancipation laws like up north and suggested all states be annexed with them. Missouri didn't want to follow this rule. eventually it was decided (Missouri Compromise) that Missouri could become a state and to make things even Mass would give up the Maine territory and make Maine a state. congress didn't want this issue later on so they drew an imaginary line on latitude 36 and said that anything above the line would be a free state and anything below it could be a slave state.Denmark Veseyhe was a slave who bought his freedom by working harder than the other slaves and getting paid by his master and saving the money. gets a job in Charleston as a free man but experiences a lot of prejudice. he put together one of the biggest rebellions to burn Charleston down (1822) to show the north that the freed slaves want to be a part of them. the plot is exposed and the militia is squashed. this attempt at a rebellion scares the white people and harsher laws get passed regarding slavery. it triggers a response from the north and gives them proof that these people who are enslaved do not want to be.Panic of 1819the north and south divided themselves over BUS. 4 key players: BUS, wild cat (state) banks WCB, land speculators (people who buy land, wait for it to develop and be worth something and then sell it), and western farmers. BUS = hard money WCB = soft money. BUS wants more people to go out west to buy land and grow food to feed the growing north and south so they lower the number of acres you can buy at a time as well as the cost. they also implement gradual payments so you don't have to purchase land in full and can pay it off over time. BUS money is backed by gold. This makes it safe and valuable. WCB had gold, they just printed more money than what they could back by gold. as people are moving west WCB starts giving out loans, they ask BUS for a loan so they can give money out. BUS loans dollars, not gold. speculators come in and buy a bunch of land for cheap knowing it can be paid off and they stat selling smaller plots of their land to farmers so they (speculators) can make a profit off of farmers paying rent. this causes a lot of issues when nobody can pay BUS back in actual money, theres lots of inflation, and then BUS threatens to foreclose all the land cause they want their money back NOW and people panic thinking they'll lose their homes and its this huge big mess and blames all the issues on BUS. this causes political divide in america. hard money vs soft money is one of the biggest influences in creating american politics.economic issues internationallya lot of spanish colonies rise up and become independent. this causes the amount of gold in situation to decrease. 1817 BUS realizes they need to keep track of their gold. this wanting to keep track of gold is what gets them to tell WCB they arent giving out anymore gold and they'll only accept payments in either gold or BUS dollars and then they stop installment payments altogether and again its this huge economic crisis and everybody panicsMonroe Elected 18165th president of the US of A. before 1812 would have considered himself a Jeffersonian/republican. his secretary of state is JQ Adams. JQ is seen as one of the best in history because of what he accomplished in diplomacy while avoiding conflict. son of John Adams. he studied law. his main focus is nationalism and he believes in uniting the nation, making it stronger, and building good relationships with other nations.Rush-Bagot Agreementfirst thing JQ oversees. 1817. believed there were a lot of treaties with loose ends he wanted to fix. made decisions about the Great Lakes, demilitarized it, left the border open with Britain in Canada and told them basically "I trust you as long as you don't screw anything up for me to make you not trust you" and it worksTreaty of 1818followed up with the treaty to define the border. JQ makes an agreement with Britain to share territory in Oregon and they agree.Florida Purchase Treaty(Adam-Onis Treaty) Florida has gone back and forth between being in custody of Spain and Britain. Andrew Jackson remains in the south and wants to attack Florida and take it as a state. Calhoun (secretary of war) says no. he gets permission to go in peacefully and collect slaves but Jackson goes in and attacks the Spanish government. they surrender. Calhoun is pissed but JQ sees this as an opportunity to make a deal with Spain. he offers them $5 million to buy Florida and makes a deal that Spain will give up their claim to Oregon territory. Spain agrees because they need money. Spain makes USA agree not to touch texas which causes problems later onMonroe Doctrine 1823not a treaty, just a broad statement. a lot of other countries want to reclaim the land they lost in the revolution. Britain wants a treaty to join with USA and protect this side of the globe and prevent advancement of other countries. Monroe and Adams say no. Monroe Doctrine is a statement presented saying that we need to leave each other alone. you stay on your side, we'll stay on ours type deal. no advancement, no colonization. if you do it will be seen as an act of war. this had little effect at the in the moment but gets called upon time and time again. Latin america is kinda mad bc america thinks they can step in and control them. challenges our relationship.Russo-American Treaty1824. how we got russia out of oregon. we let them do whatever they want above the 54th parallel but oregon is ours.industrial revolutionA period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700snorththe textile mill was created by samuel slater. he was from britain and he smuggled the plans for mills to the US. they needed power, so they were built on rivers. towns were built around mills. Pawtucket RI the first place to have a mill. there ends up being a cotton shortage because of how quickly mills could produce (this is why mill owners in the north aren't against slavery, slavery means cheap access to the crop that makes them money). eli whitney invented interchangeable parts because he realized repairing things was much more efficient than have craftsmen who were really good at fixing just one item. this put craftsmen out of business. the sewing machine was invented by issac singer and it allowed for a new kind of business to start- clothing. this was a time of an invention boom. people saw the value of creating thingssouthin 1793 eli whitney created the cotton gin. it was a pulley system in a box that could separate cotton much faster than a slave could. what 1 slave could do in a day the pulley could do 50x more. he never made any money from it because he never patened it. he hoped it could cause a decrease in the need for slaves and therefore end slavery, but it did the opposite. because cotton could be produced more rapidly land owners wanted more land to grow more which required more slaves.westthere was an increase in settlement. there was a demand for food because of the growing population. john deere creates the steel plow which makes it a thousand times easier to plow fields. McCormick invented the reaper and mower which made harvesting easier. west produces wheat, corn, and pork.transportationthere was pressure to get materials around the US. foulton created the first steam boat. this made it possible to travel down and up the mississippi. NY created the Eerie Canal which made it easier to transport goods through NY. this cut the transportation of goods from $100 to $5. the creation of canals makes cities like Detroit, Cleveland, and Chicago super populated and important. they give farmers access to shipping. the "iron horse" (train) also helped transportation. the first railroad was laid in 1828. 75% of all track ever laid was in the north because of the need to ship food and goods. the south doesn't really get trains which is bad later on in the civil war. trains were dangerous and didn't have brakes.technologythe development of the telegraph and its code by sam morse made communication much easier because we lacked a good mail system. LLC: business. Limited Liability Corporation. separates a business from a person's personal assets. it protects people starting new businesses so if the business fails the founder wont lose all their personal money. it also protects inventors. they can invest in any company they want without losing personal assets if things go from with the company. this inspires investment.population increasebiggest population increase at the time. the population doubled in 25 years and continued to double every 25 years to follow. mid 1800s there are 33 states. we are the 4th largest nation in the world. cities: 43 have over 20,000 people living in them. cities could not keep up with sanitation issues. reasons for growth: birth rate, farmers were having lots of kids so they had a work force to work the farm. immigration: mass immigration from European nations like Ireland and Germany. potato famine in ireland wiped out all the potatoes and people were starving which caused them to want to move to the US, the irish worked for super cheap wages which made the mill owners more money. germany also had a crop failure and came over but they went to work the farms in the midwest.Antiforeignismfor the first time where were war haw ideas and people born under the flag who didn't fight for the country but were patriots. they saw foreigners as a threat and called themselves "natives" (ironic). people formed groups to hate on foreigners. "Know Nothings" later on this forms political parties. people question whether the nation is a true melting pot because there is a debate on whether we're actually one unified group or not.moving westland butchery. we're not treating the land great. 2 animals almost go extinct because of us hunting them: the buffalo, which affected the natives, and the beaver, which affected the ecology. George Catlin who can be seen as the first environmentalist, he wanted to paint the untouched land before we screwed it up. he advocated for the protection of the land. he convinces the federal government to create the first national park, which ends up being yellowstonegrowth of the middle classcraftsmen decline but they grow in other ways. new positions created because of industrialization: management, inventors, investors, and politicswage slaveryfarmers were the lower class but now the people in cities aren't farmers. mill workers with unregulated pay make a tiny wage. the south starts to claim the north has white slavery because they are barely making a livable wage and they have to rely on their employer for everything. people realize if they band together (strikes) they can try to demand better conditions. 1842 supreme court legalized labor unions but its a long way from being successfulwomen in millsnot mass female employment during this time. people didn't want to see married american women working. men were looked down upon if their wives worked. women weren't really allowed to be employed. fathers would send their daughters to mills to work and live there and they would work until they were married.city familytypically less children. child labor existed to help support the family so they could feed themselves. home was supposed to be peaceful. women stayed home to provide for the family and give their husband a place to relax.universal manhood suffragethere was a super big change in democracy in period 4. owning land had always been a prerequisite for voting. states start determining voting rights and they shift mostly because of industrialization. a lot of people in cities rent and don't own land. the growing middle class might have money but they don't own land. they start trying to get states to change the voting requirements. the poorer class also want the right to vote. one state at a time starts changing their constitution to allow white men to vote regardless of if they have land.election of 1824start to see the working/poorer class voting which originally scared people bc states didn't want uneducated people voting. Andrew Jackson a very unique politician. he runs for office and the working class feels represented by his "fire". he gets the largest percentage of the popular vote but he only gets 99 electoral votes. Henry Clay thinks about the nation, people like him as a congressman, but he's very middle ground. he gets the smallest popular vote and 37 electoral votes. JQ Adams also runs. 2nd post popular vote. 84 electoral votes. according to the constitution, none of these men got majority so it goes to House of Reps. they only take the top 3 candidates, Jackson, JQ, and Crawford. Crawford from GA gets the 3rd most popular vote and 41 electoral votes. he gets deathly ill and drops out. Jackson feels by default he should win. JQ goes to Henry Clay (who has a lot of friends in congress + the house) and he tells him he will make Clay secretary of state if JQ wins. "Corrupt Bargain" as Jackson calls it. Jackson is angry that JQ won and spends the next 4 years sabotaging his presidency.JQ Adams as Presidenthe tries to be middle ground. he wants to uphold nationalism. he grew up with money and struggles to understand the lower class. him being so middle ground pisses people off. adams isn't benefiting anybody who helped him get into office which irks the people. this is the time when campaigning starts to get really important. JQ backs higher tariff because he knows it will back industry. the south is angry because it affects trade and makes goods go up. JQ loses the south because they get screwed over by the high tariff. he also wants to control WCB to prevent another panic. the west is upset because now they don't have easy access to loans to get land. JQ also wants to treat the natives fairly. this pisses off the people who want to expand.The Election of 1836lowkey useless Martin VanBuren voted president his 4 year term sucks because of the economic panic going on, Clays wigs party can really start to work on themselves in preparation for the next electioncultural nationalismup until this point art, literature, music, and intellectual thought were very heavily influenced by britain/europe. we copied all their ideas. we're starting to take their ideas and put our own american twist on them. the characters in our books are now americans, our art features american victories, etcRalph Waldo Emersonamerican unitarian pastor. the Unitarian church came about after the first great awakening, it was founded on the idea of using rational thought, questioning why people believe things. they called bs on a lot of the stuff other churches believed in (for example people started to question the whole idea of predestination). it was still christian, but they believed in god and his one form rather than the father, son, and holy spirit because they saw a lot of plot holes in that rationale. Emerson goes to Europe to try and find himself and is introduced to romanticism.Romanticismearly on europeans thoughts that the enlightenment had done its job but now people were starting to question too much. romanticism gave feeling back to people. the idea of seeking truth in nature and life, realizing there is power in emotion and feeling. allow feelings to feel. imagination > trying to rationalize everything. the idea of rebelling against social norms because trends only hold us back.transcendentalism (emerson)Emerson takes romanticism and adds a religious twist. God exists in all of us and nature and he looks out for all of us. go out and take it all in and find the goodness in everybody. every person has to find their own path to knowledge, what you might want to seek for your life might be different from somebody else- and thats okay. he felt modernizing society was okay if people were following their intution. big emphasis on intuition and following your gut.Henry David Thoreaustudent of Emerson's. took transcendentalism to the next level, he went out and lived on a lake for 2 years to isolate himself from society. he thought the best way to truly follow your intuition was to isolate yourself. he published a very popular book "On the Duty of Civil Disobedience" where he emphasized protesting unjust law if you believed they were infringing on your rights. Ghandi and MLK go on later to quote him.Brook Farma transcendental example of communal living, the church gave a group of people in mass land so they could isolate themselves and live by transcendentalism. worked for 5 years until their barn burnt down and they had to go back to society.Oneida Communitysame idea of the 1960s hippies in a way they believed in "free love" saying anybody can be with whoever they want. isolated themselves from society. dabbled in birth control and had very unique ideas surrounding relationships and children. made money basket making and by making flatwareShakerswanted to create a separate super simplistic society. unlike the onedia, they believed desires distracted you from finding yourself so the compound was divided by men and women. made furniture.denominational diversitysome religions spawned from these ideas. mormons were created by joseph smith in 1830 in NY, he believed he was delivered a tablet by an angel that claimed the tablet was the third book of the bible. one aspect of the book was the spreading of love. mormons practiced polygamy which was outlawed, but a man could have many wives and many children because they believed it was the fastest way to spread love. the mormons decided to leave NY and were led by brigham young to utah.art literature and musicsubject matter of our art literature and music became american. John Trumbell starts making detailed paintingsof the revolutionary war, telling the story of american victories. before this time writing was purposeful and political, and then washington irving wrote "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" which took place in the US and had an american main character."Awakening"in both the 1st and 2nd great awakening, the church had realized it needed to change to keep up with the ideas of the people. they had to change to stay relevant. in the first great awakening, the church abandoned ideas such as predestination, because the people were beginning to question the rationality behind an idea like that. this caused "the enlightenment" which opened the church up to everybody, rather than just the elect and elite people in church, which encouraged the people to stop rationalizing and continue to be religious. in the 2nd great awakening the church had to keep up with these new ideas of transcendentalism in order to stay relevant.why awakeningideas were changing. people were let to over rationalize and question too much, and the church realized that people need to start having their own relationships with God. they encourage people to have their own silent prayers rather than just praying with the church as a group. they (the church) want the church to become a place people go for help with stuff outside religion, like finances, relationships, etc.take back the faiththe church wants to open a more loving space for the people. by showing love you are doing good deeds and acting like Jesus/God. follow your instincts (transcendentalism) to do good. find something to fix and you'll get into heaven. women are primarily the ones spreading these ideas because they have extra time on their hands. the 2nd great awakening causes missionary work which starts with women. birth of reform in society. women don't have a lot of political voice so they rely on their husbands to spread the ideas which causes ideas of womens rights movement. reform and abolitioneducationpush for education because universal malehood suffrage. if any man can vote, they should be educated. "Free school for a free people." a lot of people disagree with taxes going toward other people's kids. civic virtue comes up again. you have to give a little of yourself to help society as a whole. states eventually get on board with education but there ends up being a teacher shortage. Horce Mann pushes for funding and support of schools and teachers. teachers are mostly women. there was encouragement for education going past the primary level and a focus on societal values in education that will help people be educated adults. "Ignorance not sin lay at the heart of every nation's problems"prisonsup until this point prisons were meant to be severe punishment. there was no chance of rehabilitation. we realize there needs to be some sort of rehab. reform movement tries to remind people there is a human at the core of every criminal. starting to realize people deserve second chances. there are reduced sentences for good behavior in prisons. prisoners are taught trades so they can contribute to society when they get out.mentally illmental health institutions were as bad as prison systems. people believed the mentally ill were possessed byevil and were making the choice to be unwell. middle class woman dorthea dix advocated for the mentally ill, she went to multiple institutions and documented the treatment of patients. she gets people to feel empathy and try to make changetemperancetemperance means control. with the immigrant population liquor drinking was causing issues because nobody had any self control and were getting drunk all the time. instead of banning it completely, the American Temperance Society in boston in 1826 start trying to control the consuming of alcohol and encourage people to have healthy limits.