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first line of defense
is a surface protection composed of anatomical and physiological barriers that keep microbes from penetrating sterile body compartments
second line of defense
a cellular and chemical system that comes into play if infectious agents make it past the surface defenses
second line of defense
examples include phagocytes that engulf foreign matter and destroy it, and inflammation that holds infections in check
third line of defense
includes specific host defenses that must be developed uniquely for each microbe through the action of specialized white blood cells. This form of immunity is usually long term and has memory
occurs as a pervasive, continuous connective tissue framework throughout the body
circulatory system proper
includes heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries that circulate blood (red fluid)
includes lymphatic vessels and lymphatic organs (lymph nodes) that circulate lymph (colorless fluid)
is a liquid connective tissue consisting of blood cells suspended in a fluid called plasma
attack and destroy large eukaryotic pathogens, also involved in inflammation and allergic reactions
__ are discharged by bone marrow into bloodstream, live as phagocytes for a few days, then leave blood and differentiate into __
relatives of macrophages that reside in tissues and RES. Process foreign matter and present to lymphocytes
natural killer cells
related to T cells, antigen nonspecific and active against cancerous and virus infected cells
develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. Lose their nucleus just prior to entering circulation
function primarily in hemostatis and in releasing chemicals for blood clotting and inflammation
compartmentalized network of vessels, cells, and specialized accessory organs (lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, lymphoid tissues, GALT)
provide auxiliary route, act as drain-off, render surveillance, recognition, and protection
major functions of the lymphatic system
plasmalike liquid formed when certain blood components move out of blood vessels into the extracellular spaces and diffuse or migrate into the lymphatic capillaries
originates in the embryo. High rates of activity and growth until puberty, then shrinks gradually thru adulthood
set in motion mechanisms to repair tissue damage and localize and clear away harmful substances
late in the process of inflammation the tissue is repaired or replaced by connective tissue, called a
inhibits multiplication, impedes nutrition of bacteria, and increases metabolism and stimulates immune reactions
survey the tissue compartments and discover microbes, particulate matter, and injured or dead cells. Ingest and eliminate these materials
complement has at least __ blood proteins that work in concert to destroy bacteria and certain viruses
classical, lectin, alternative
3 different pathways of complement that all yield to similar end results
in complement cascade, a large donut shaped enzyme that punctures a pore thru the membrane leading to cell lysis
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