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99 terms

BIOL 210 Ch. 14 slides

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first line of defense
includes physical barriers, chemical barriers, and genetic components
second line of defense
includes inflammatory response, interferons, phagocytosis, complement
first line of defense
is a surface protection composed of anatomical and physiological barriers that keep microbes from penetrating sterile body compartments
second line of defense
a cellular and chemical system that comes into play if infectious agents make it past the surface defenses
second line of defense
examples include phagocytes that engulf foreign matter and destroy it, and inflammation that holds infections in check
third line of defense
includes specific host defenses that must be developed uniquely for each microbe through the action of specialized white blood cells. This form of immunity is usually long term and has memory
constitutive defenses
always on guard, but do not improve with repeated exposures
lysozyme
nonspecific chemical defense in tears
physical barriers
what is the main component of our first line of defense
lysis
the effect of lysozyme treatment on Staphylococcus cells is that it leads to cell
immunology
the study of all features of the body's second and third lines of defense
white blood cells
distinguish self from nonself cells
reticuloendothelial system
a passageway within and between tissues and organs
mononuclear phagocyte system
the reticuloendothelial system coexists with the
reticuloendothelial system
occurs as a pervasive, continuous connective tissue framework throughout the body
circulatory system proper
includes heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries that circulate blood (red fluid)
lymphatic system
includes lymphatic vessels and lymphatic organs (lymph nodes) that circulate lymph (colorless fluid)
whole blood
is a liquid connective tissue consisting of blood cells suspended in a fluid called plasma
92%
percentage of water in plasma
hematopoeisis
production of blood cells, relatively short life
pluripotential stem cells
primary precursor of new blood cells located in the marrow
erythrocytes
red blood cells aka
leukocytes
white blood cells aka
thrombocytes
platelets aka
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
granulocytes are WBCs that include
monocytes and lymphocytes
agranulocytes are WBCs that include
neutrophils
phagocytosis
eosinophils
attack and destroy large eukaryotic pathogens, also involved in inflammation and allergic reactions
basophils
parallel eosinophils in many actions (histamin)
monocytes
blood phagocytes that later become macrophages
lymphocytes
primary cells involved in immune reactions
monocytes; macrophages
__ are discharged by bone marrow into bloodstream, live as phagocytes for a few days, then leave blood and differentiate into __
dendritic cells
relatives of macrophages that reside in tissues and RES. Process foreign matter and present to lymphocytes
lymphocytes
key cells in the third line of defense and the specific immune response
B and T cells
two types of lymphocytes
B cells
humoral immunity; produce specialized plasma cells which produce antibodies
humoral immunity
protective molecules carried in the fluids of the body
t cells
cell-mediated immunity. Modulate immune functions and kill foreign cells
natural killer cells
related to T cells, antigen nonspecific and active against cancerous and virus infected cells
erythrocytes
develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. Lose their nucleus just prior to entering circulation
erythrocytes
transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues
platelets
formed elements in circulating blood. Not whole cells.
platelets
function primarily in hemostatis and in releasing chemicals for blood clotting and inflammation
lymphatic system
compartmentalized network of vessels, cells, and specialized accessory organs (lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, lymphoid tissues, GALT)
provide auxiliary route, act as drain-off, render surveillance, recognition, and protection
major functions of the lymphatic system
lymph
plasmalike liquid formed when certain blood components move out of blood vessels into the extracellular spaces and diffuse or migrate into the lymphatic capillaries
composition
parallels that of plasma, but without RBC
one direction only from extremities to heart
flow of lymph is
GALT
gut associated lymphoid tissue
axillary, inguinal, cervical
major aggregations of lymph nodes
spleen
similar to a lymph node except it filters blood instead of lymph
pathogens
spleen filters __ from the blood
thymus
originates in the embryo. High rates of activity and growth until puberty, then shrinks gradually thru adulthood
thymic hormones
__ help thymocytes develop specificity to be released as mature T cells
MALT
mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue
SALT
skin-associated lymphoid tissue
BALT
bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue
rubor
redness
calor
warmth
tumor
swelling
dolor
pain
loss of function
5th symptom of inflammatory response
inflammation
mobilize and attract immune components to the site of the injury
inflammation
set in motion mechanisms to repair tissue damage and localize and clear away harmful substances
inflammation
destroy microbes and block their further invasion
edema
leakage of vascular fluid into tissues
exudates
the fluid that escapes thru gaps in the walls of postcapillary venules
edema
accumulation of exudates causes
serous
clear
pus
edema that contains RBCs
diapedesis
how WBCs leave the blood vessels and into tissue spaces
chemotaxis
the tendency of WBCs to migrate in response to a specific chemical stimulus
B lymphocytes
produce antibodies
T lymphocytes
kill intruders directly
scar
late in the process of inflammation the tissue is repaired or replaced by connective tissue, called a
fever
an adjunct to inflammation where there is an abnormally elevated body temperature
fever of unknown origin
FUO
pyrogen
sets the hypothalamic thermostat to a higher setting
pyrogens
can be exogenous or endogenous
fever
inhibits multiplication, impedes nutrition of bacteria, and increases metabolism and stimulates immune reactions
phagocytosis
cornerstone of inflammation and specific immunity
phagocytes
survey the tissue compartments and discover microbes, particulate matter, and injured or dead cells. Ingest and eliminate these materials
neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages
3 main types of phagocytes
engulfment
what step of phagocytosis do microbial capsules interfere with the most
interferon
antiviral cytokines and immune stimulants
interferon
involved against viruses, other microbes, in immune regulation and intercommunication
alpha, beta, gamma
3 major types of interferons
complement
a versatile backup system
complement
a special chemical defense found in serum
26
complement has at least __ blood proteins that work in concert to destroy bacteria and certain viruses
classical, lectin, alternative
3 different pathways of complement that all yield to similar end results
complement
main functions are opsonization, chemotaxis, and pore formation
membrane attack
in complement cascade, a large donut shaped enzyme that punctures a pore thru the membrane leading to cell lysis
extracellular
complement is most effective against __ pathogens
lysozyme in saliva
an example of a nonspecific chemical barrier to infection is
neutrophils
blood cells that function primarily as phagocytes
agranular; macrophages
monocytes are __ leukocytes that develop into __
connection between tissues and organs
the main function of reticuloendothelial system is to provide
edema
the leakage of vascular fluid into tissues is called