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Psychology Chapter 10

the ability to take the perspective of, or empathize with others and distinguish between right and wrong
lawrence kohlberg
created a model of moral development based upon responses to moral dilemmas
Pre-conventional morality
Includes stage 1 (punishment) and 2 (instrumental) of morality
birth to adolescence
stage 1 of morality
children have a hard time seeing other people's point of view, ignore people's good intentions
stage 2 of morality
become aware of other people's perspective, morality is based on exchange of favors
conventional morality
includes stage 3 (good, child orientation) and 4 (order orientation)
adolescence to young adulthood
good-child orientation
stage 3 of morality
all about being nice, consider other people's intentions
law - order orientation
stage 4 of morality
morality is based upon the larger perspective and societal law, intentions do not count because they broke a law and there are consequences, highest level attained by most adults
post conventional morality
includes stage 5 (social-contract orientation) and stage 6 (universal-ethics orientation)
happens in adulthood
social contract orientation
stage 5 of morality
thinks about why the laws are there and obey them because we have to concede with the laws of the land
can be morally disobeyed if they fail to maximize the good for others
universal ethics orientation
stage 6 of morality
non-violence, human dignity, freedom, may break some laws but are doing it for unselfish reasons, very few people actually reach this stage of morality
an individual's innate behavioral style and characteristic emotional response
easy children
50% of children fall into this category, easy to work with, do what they are told, are happy
difficult children
10% of babies, very moody, easily frustrated, overreacted to most situations
slow to warm up children
15% of babies - mild responses, somewhat shy and withdrawn, needed time to get to know new people
goodness of fit
parental behaviors, social and environmental behaviors,
need to work with child's temperament, not try and change it
Trust vs. mistrust
stage 1 of psychosocial development
infant learns to trust that their needs will be met
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
stage 2 of psychosocial development
toddlers learn to exercise will, make choices, and control themselves
initiative vs. guilt
stage 3 of psychosocial development
preschoolers learn to initiate activities and enjoy their accomplishments
industry vs. inferiority
stage 4 of psychosocial development
elementary aged children learn to develop a sense of industry and learn productive skills that their culture requires
identity vs. role confusion
stage 5 of psychosocial development
adolescents develop a coherent sense of self and their role in society, period of serious soul searching
intimacy vs. isolation
stage 6 of psychosocial development
young adults form intimate connections with others, if not they face isolation and consequent self-absorption
generativity vs. stagnation
stage 7 of psychosocial development
middle age adults develop concern for establishing and influencing the next generation
ego integrity vs. despair
stage 8 of psychosocial development
older people enter a period of reflection in which they either feel a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction with their live or regret for the things they didn't do
identified 8 psychosocial stages of development
each stage was marked by a psychosocial conflict or crisis
individualistic culture
needs and goals of the individual are emphasized over the needs and goals of the group
collectivist culture
needs and goals of the group are emphasized over the needs and goals of the individual
greater life satisfaction, lower stress, less depression, establishing love maps, sharing power and mutual support, managing conflict wisely, similarity, supportive social environment, maintaining a positive emphasis
primary programs
tend to identify vulnerable families and work to prevent abuse and violence before it ever starts
secondary programs
the violence and abuse has already happened and they are trying to rehabilitate families after the violence has already happened
the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats
activity theory of aging
successful aging is fostered by a full and active commitment to life
disengagement theory
successful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawal between the elderly and society
socioemotional selectivity theory
a natural decline in social contact as older adults become more selective with their time
first stage of grief -- dazed shocked, or show little emotion, may deny that their loved one is gone
second stage of grief -- experience a strong desire for their loved one
experience strong feelings of guilt, anger, resentment
third stage of grief -- submissive, despair, completely worn out
fourth stage of grief -- put new life back together
as adults we understand it as: permanence, universality, non functionality
Stage Theory of death
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

has to do with accepting and grieving our own death
study of death and dying