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the ability to take the perspective of, or empathize with others and distinguish between right and wrong

lawrence kohlberg

created a model of moral development based upon responses to moral dilemmas

Pre-conventional morality

Includes stage 1 (punishment) and 2 (instrumental) of morality
birth to adolescence


stage 1 of morality
children have a hard time seeing other people's point of view, ignore people's good intentions


stage 2 of morality
become aware of other people's perspective, morality is based on exchange of favors

conventional morality

includes stage 3 (good, child orientation) and 4 (order orientation)
adolescence to young adulthood

good-child orientation

stage 3 of morality
all about being nice, consider other people's intentions

law - order orientation

stage 4 of morality
morality is based upon the larger perspective and societal law, intentions do not count because they broke a law and there are consequences, highest level attained by most adults

post conventional morality

includes stage 5 (social-contract orientation) and stage 6 (universal-ethics orientation)
happens in adulthood

social contract orientation

stage 5 of morality
thinks about why the laws are there and obey them because we have to concede with the laws of the land
can be morally disobeyed if they fail to maximize the good for others

universal ethics orientation

stage 6 of morality
non-violence, human dignity, freedom, may break some laws but are doing it for unselfish reasons, very few people actually reach this stage of morality


an individual's innate behavioral style and characteristic emotional response

easy children

50% of children fall into this category, easy to work with, do what they are told, are happy

difficult children

10% of babies, very moody, easily frustrated, overreacted to most situations

slow to warm up children

15% of babies - mild responses, somewhat shy and withdrawn, needed time to get to know new people

goodness of fit

parental behaviors, social and environmental behaviors,
need to work with child's temperament, not try and change it

Trust vs. mistrust

stage 1 of psychosocial development
infant learns to trust that their needs will be met

autonomy vs. shame and doubt

stage 2 of psychosocial development
toddlers learn to exercise will, make choices, and control themselves

initiative vs. guilt

stage 3 of psychosocial development
preschoolers learn to initiate activities and enjoy their accomplishments

industry vs. inferiority

stage 4 of psychosocial development
elementary aged children learn to develop a sense of industry and learn productive skills that their culture requires

identity vs. role confusion

stage 5 of psychosocial development
adolescents develop a coherent sense of self and their role in society, period of serious soul searching

intimacy vs. isolation

stage 6 of psychosocial development
young adults form intimate connections with others, if not they face isolation and consequent self-absorption

generativity vs. stagnation

stage 7 of psychosocial development
middle age adults develop concern for establishing and influencing the next generation

ego integrity vs. despair

stage 8 of psychosocial development
older people enter a period of reflection in which they either feel a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction with their live or regret for the things they didn't do


identified 8 psychosocial stages of development
each stage was marked by a psychosocial conflict or crisis

individualistic culture

needs and goals of the individual are emphasized over the needs and goals of the group

collectivist culture

needs and goals of the group are emphasized over the needs and goals of the individual


greater life satisfaction, lower stress, less depression, establishing love maps, sharing power and mutual support, managing conflict wisely, similarity, supportive social environment, maintaining a positive emphasis

primary programs

tend to identify vulnerable families and work to prevent abuse and violence before it ever starts

secondary programs

the violence and abuse has already happened and they are trying to rehabilitate families after the violence has already happened


the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats

activity theory of aging

successful aging is fostered by a full and active commitment to life

disengagement theory

successful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawal between the elderly and society

socioemotional selectivity theory

a natural decline in social contact as older adults become more selective with their time


first stage of grief -- dazed shocked, or show little emotion, may deny that their loved one is gone


second stage of grief -- experience a strong desire for their loved one
experience strong feelings of guilt, anger, resentment


third stage of grief -- submissive, despair, completely worn out


fourth stage of grief -- put new life back together


as adults we understand it as: permanence, universality, non functionality

Stage Theory of death

denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

has to do with accepting and grieving our own death


study of death and dying

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