CCJ 4014 - Chapter 13 - Feminist Theories

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Another way of explaining this feminist theory is to say "as women enter traditional males jobs, they will commit traditional male crimes."Masculinity HypothesisThis feminist theory posits that as women's work opportunities increased, they would commit more economic crimes such as embezzlement. What theory is this?Opportunity HypothesisThis feminist theory is the view that as women increase their numbers in corporate America, the rates of white-collar and corporate crime will increase along with this increased opportunity.Opportunity HypothesisThis feminist theory is the belief that economic pressure is put on women to support themselves and their dependent children, along with the stepping back of men from their roles of financial support of women and children, have pushed women into criminal activity for economic gain.Economic Marginalization HypothesisJohn Hagan's feminist theory sets out explicitly to account for gender differences in delinquent involvement and how those gender differences expand or contract depending on the type of family structure, and the degree of parental controls, over boys relative to girls.Power-Control Theory_____________ families are those wherein the father's occupation places him in a "command" position, giving orders to others, and the mother either does not work outside the home or works in a job where she occupies an "obey" position, taking orders from supervisors.Patriarchal families_____________ families are those where both the mother and father work in "command" positions, both work in "obey" positions, or the father is absent.Egalitarian familiesThe earlier version of power-control theory predicts that boys will commit more delinquency than girls in ___________ families because sons are subject to fewer controls, view risk taking as more pleasurable, and perceive fewer negative consequences of risky behavior than daughters.patriarchalThe earlier version of power-control theory predicts that in __________ families boys are still more likely than girls to engage in delinquent activities, but the gender difference will be smaller.egalitarianThe incorporation of mainstream criminological theory into feminist theories of gender and crime is most evident in two areas of inquiry: ________________ and ___________________.gendered pathways to crime and gendered contexts of crimeThe ________________________ (Daly, 1998; Brennan et al., 2012) has much in common with the developmental and life-course perspective (see Ch. 14) and work in this area focuses on the life experiences and developmental trajectories of girls and women who become involved in crime. Feminist researchers typically engage in ________________ field observations and interviews with female offenders, allowing these women a "voice" in describing the events in their own lives that may be linked to their criminal involvement.Gendered Pathways Approach / ethnographicOne of the most common themes to emerge in gendered ______________ research is the experience of physical and sexual victimization in the lives of female offenders.pathwaysOffering more promise as a testable explanation of the gendered nature of crime is the ________________________________.gendered context approachThis approach examines the degree to which males and females encounter different normative expectations and opportunities for offending, as well as the degree to which males and females attribute different meanings, and thus respond differently, to similar events and situations. This approach can, and often does, draw from traditional criminological theories.Gendered Context ApproachIn regard to the gendered context approach, Steffensmeier and Allan (1996) concede that theoretical variables such as those derived from social learning, social bonding, and anomie theories might serve to account for gender differences in minor delinquency; however, a gendered approach is necessary to account for differences in ________________ criminal involvement.seriousChesney-Lind and Pasko (2013) suggested that prevention and treatment should be preferred over punitive policies for female offenders, because there are some special, perhaps unique, life circumstances faced by girls and women that include special vulnerability to sexual assault and intimate violence, unplanned pregnancy, and adolescent motherhood. These and other gendered events and contingencies must be taken into account when designing __________________ and ________________ programs.treatment and preventionA review of evaluation studies assessing the effectiveness of both gender-specific and gender-neutral programs for female juvenile offenders concluded for the most part that good programs specifically targeting girls were no more effective in reducing recidivism than good programs targeting juvenile offenders of both sexes (Zahn et al., 2009). However, Zahn et al. (2009:289) also concluded that "evidence on gender-specific programs has pointed to potential positive effects on outcomes such as education, employment, relationships with family and friends, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and other social-psychological outcomes (e.g., self-awareness, body image, social development) that may empower girls and improve their overall ______________________________-."quality of lifeFeminist theories are still in the _________________ for the most part and further testing on hypothesis still needed.developmental phaseEmpirical validity of feminist theories is ______________.mixedThe criminal justice system is filled with males (it is hard to ignore this), and when gender is studied, at every legal decision point its effect tends to be small and it frequently favors ________________. (Liska and Messner, 1999:207)femalesApplin and Messner (2015) propose a gendered version of institutional anomie theory (see Chapter 9) that acknowledges that social institutions, especially the economy and the family, are gendered, with males dominant in the ________________ and females dominant in the ________________.economy / familyApplin and Messner (2015) propose that within a patriarchal social structure that values men over women, economic dominance is "______________________________."virtually guaranteedJames Messerschmidt (1986) incorporated the feminist focus on patriarchy into the Marxist position that capitalism is ___________________ because it exploits the working class.criminogenicHis theory was that crime is caused by the combination of a male-dominated, patriarchal social structure and a capitalist economic system. To him, the criminality of women and the violent crime of lower-class men both result from their powerlessness, whereas corporate crimes and sexual crimes against women, especially rape, are the result of male power.James Messerschmidt