Hort Final Tests

T or F: a biennial plant will fulfill its life cycle in two growing seasons
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Terms in this set (156)
a non flowering plant where the seed is uncoveredgymnosperma species of plant that has both male and female reproductive organs on the same plantmonoeciousa flowering plant where the seed is covered by a fruiting structureangiospermvascular tissue that serves as a transport for water upwards in the plantxylema flower containing both male and female reproductive organsperfecta plant where the primary root system is missingfibrous root systemthe cultivation of garden plants or the science, business, technology, art and hobby of growing plantshorticulturethe male reproductive organ of a flowerstamenvascular tissue that serves as a transport for food across the plant, both upwards and downwardsphloemthe distinct geographical region where a species evolvedcenter of originthe mature and ripened ovary and surrounding tissuesfruitthe contraction of the words cultivated and varietycultivarconsidered the father of american horticulturebaileyprocess for adapting wild plants and animals for human usedomesticationhas 2 cotyledons, netted venation on leaves, flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5, stem vascular bundles, stem secondary thickening, and roots that develop from a radicledicotsa plant that lives more than two years, it is reoccurringperennialthe irreversible increase in the size of the plantgrowthhas an embryo with one cotyledon, parallel leaf venation, flower parts in multiples of 3, stem vascular bundles that are scattered, secondary growth absent, and adventitious rootsmonocota plant that occurs naturally in a region, pre-european settlementnative plantrecovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyedhabitat restorationthe first to attempt to classify plantstheophrastusthe type of cells which provide flexibility and wound healing to young plant organsparenchyma cellsa plant species that has male and female reproductive organs on separate individualsdioeciousthis universal naming system produces botanical names in latin formbinomial nomenclaturean inflorescence in which the youngest flowers are at the top of the flowering structureindeterminatewhere photosynthesis occurs in the plant cellchloroplastall this is contained within the cell, minus the nucleuscytoplasmyou find a flower that has sepals, no petals, male parts, and female parts. is it perfect, incomplete, completeperfect incompletehistorically, AR contained more than 1.5 million acres of treeless grasslands, which included: a. tallgrass prairies b. blackland prairies c. barrens, glades, and treeless habitats d. all of the abovedchemical reactions in a plant which turns food into energymetabolismwhat is an aboveground root which provides extra support in the soil, notably in cornprop root3 functions of rootsanchorage absorption of water and nutrients conduction of water and nutrients2 functions of stemssupport of flowers passageway for nutrients3 ways horticulture differs from agronomyhigher yields more extensively cared for perishableT or F: a qualitative trait is measured numericallyfalseT or F: photoperiod is the duration of the lighted periodtrueT or F: translocation is the movement of photosynthesis throughout the planttrueT or F: examples of horticultural crops are fruits, vegetables, turf-grasses and ornamental plantstrueT or F: abiotic factors affecting plant growth include light, climate, and watertrueT or F: a quantitative trait is measured numericallytrueT or F: photosynthesis is the most important of the plant processestrueT or F: arabidopsis thaliana was the first genome, sequenced in 2000trueT or F: plant breeding is the art and science of genetic improvement of plantstrueT or F: evapotranspiration is affected by plant leaves and cuticles, as well as weather conditions including light, relative humidity, temperature, and windtruewhere seed from multiple sources is grown in the same placecommon garden studythe process which turns DNA into usable proteinsgene expressionthe irreversible increase in the size of a plantgrowthtiny fragments of rock combined with decomposed organic mattersoilthe variation of a geneallelethe amount of available light for photosynthesisPARlight which forms a spectrum of wavelengthselectromagnetic radiationthe study of the variation of inherited characteristicsgeneticsa subdivision of a species based on local adaptationecotypethe chemical reactions which turn food into energymetabolismplant development in the absence of lightetiolationplant material collected and stored for future use in breeding, research, and conservation effortsgermplasmthe most limiting factor in plant growthwaterelements required in greater quantities by plantsmacronutrientswhere cell division occurs in the plantmeristemsthe amount of light given off by a light sourcelight quantitythe continual exchange between the atmosphere and the earth's surface; source of fresh water for rivers, lakes, and all of life on earthprecipitationfactors are living things that affects plant growth, like animals or insectsbioticthe climate of a very small or restricted areamicroclimatean average of the weather conditions in a region, averaged over yearsclimatea way to protect ideas, recover investments in their development, and limit use of technology ideas or original accomplishmentsintellectual property rightscovers about 70% of the earth's surfacewaterthese fertilizers are composted and highly stable materialsorganicprimary macronutrients includeN, P, Kplant growth is cued bylight temperature water and nutritionmovement of water throughout the plant, ending in evaporation from the stomatatranspirationa manifestation of the climatic conditions at any given point in time; what is happening nowweatherthe chemical symbol for potassium isKin the ambient environment, what do plants respond tolight quality light quantity photoperiodfactors affecting general climatic patterns includeseason and topography latitude and elevationwhat are challenges in plant breedingpredicting future market demands focus, adaptability, and funding climate and environmenta by-product of photosynthesis isoxygenthe actual set of alleles an organism has for a traitgenotypethe exchange of genes between chromosomes, resulting chromosomes that are not identical to either parent, or a unique gameterecombinationT or F: there are over 50 million acres of managed turfgrass in the UStrueT or F: warm-season turf-grasses include bermudagrass and kentucky bluegrassfalseT or F: site considerations like placement, rotation, and size of plants are not important when planningfalseT or F: landscape architect involves the planning, design, management, and nurturing of the built and natural environments, and requires a professional certificationtrueT or F: hogs are native to arkansasfalseT or F: soil is the all-ecompassing term referring to that in which plants can growfalseT or F: turfgrasses have benefits including oxygen production, runoff reduction, carbon sequestration and can be homes to thriving ecosystemstrueT or F: a severe freeze is 29-32 degrees, resulting in a destruction of tender garden plantsfalseT or F: benefits of home gardening include reducing your grocery budget, knowing the source of fresh produce, and limiting chemical inputs and transportation coststrueT or F: multiple crops in a cropping rotation will break insect, weed, and disease cyclestrueferal hogs, emerald ash borer, and chestnut blight fungus are examples ofinvasive specieshistorically, prairies were maintained by the grazing of large mammals and thisfirethe art and science of designing, installing, and care of plants used to enhance, preserve, or emphasize the esthetic, ecological or cultural value of the built environment and landformslandscapinglandscapes use best practices and techniques that allow for the long-term function of the landscape with minimal inputs of resources over timesustainableaccording to jennifer ogle, what are so examples of invasice plantsburning bush and callery pearthis is the study of vegetables and vegetable productionolericultureaccording to the arkansas natural heritage commussion, how many acres of open, treeless grasslands were present in AR prior to widespread european settlement1,500,000a previously living material that can be found on/within the surface of soilorganic matterthe process of removing mechanical dormancy from seed by damaging the seed coatscarificationthis part of turf-grasses are excellent at filtering and removing pollutants from waterfibrous root systemsthe most important part to consider when planning commercial vegetable or fruit production systemscrop adaptabilitya fish whose habitat was saved by the restoration of original habitat behind sams in fayettevillearkansas farterthis is a non-native organism whose introduction causes or is likely to cause, economic or environmental harm or harm to humans, animals, or plant healthinvasive speciesa horticultural crop that the university of arkansas is currently breedingblackberrieswhat industry is a major source of invasive species introduction in the united stateshorticulutre4 characteristics of invasive plantsno natural predator grows gast produces first leaves faster is not native4 benefits of turfgrassstores carbon provides oxygen reduces heat reduces runoff5 factors that work together to form soilclimate organisms parent material time topographywhat controls all chemical reactions in plantstemperatureT or F: plant growth ceases at the minimum and maximum cardinal points of temperaturetrueT or F: plants that are hardy in minnesota may not be able to take arkansas summer temperaturestruethe ability of a plant to adjust to colling temperaturesacclimationthe ability of a plant to withstand or tolerate temperature extremeshardinessa period of rest for a plant; allows plants to avoid growth during times when weather is unfavorabledormancyT or F: vernalization is a period of exposure to low temperatures to induce floral initiationtrueminimum period of cold weather which will induce a plant to break dormancychill unitsused to estimate the growth and development of plants and insects during the growing seasonheat unitsT or F: water does not remain stationary in the soil; it continually movestruewhat type of environments are high and low tunnelspassivethe practice of poking holes into soil to reduce soil compaction, and allow air and water to reach roots, increasing root growthaerationT or F: aerobic respiration occurs in a plant in the absence of oxygenfalseT or F: woody plants are composed of >50% water by weighttruethe process of water movement through plantstranspirationthe movement of material from leaves to other plant tissuestranslocationthe study of variations of inherited characteristicsgeneticsT or F: genomes are incredibly variable in sizetruethe art and science of genetic improvement of plantsplant breedingloss of diversity which compounds over generationsinbreedingplant materials that are collected and stored for future use in breeding, research, and or conservation effortsgermplasmthe difference between a peach and a nectarineone genethe outwardly observable value; you can see itphenotypethe process that turns DNA into usable proteinsgene expressionwhere seed from multiple sources is grown in the same placecommon garden studycomponents of the stemnodes internods budsstems that lack wood and die at the end of the growing seasontrueexample of modified stemsrhizomes and bulbsexamples of adventitious rootsaerial and prop rootsoutermost layer of cells that protects the plant against mechanical injury, water loss and infectionepidermisprotects and facilitates the passage of the root through the soilroot capan extension of the epidermisroot hairT or F: the main function of a flower is reproductiontrueused to describe genetic variation within a regionprovenancethe scientific organization of plantstaxonomyconsiderations when classifying plantsmorphological features growth patterns environmental adaptations usage of the plantcreated a formal system for naming plants and animalscarl linnaeussomething that exists in nature; taxonomic term referring to botanical varietyvarietyT or F: photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasttruethe fundamental organizational unit of plantscell