Chapters 25-26 History

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Terms in this set (...)

General Douglas MacArthur
commander of the US forces in the Philippine Islands who directed the Allied occupation of Japan
Free French
a French movement during World War II that was organized in London by Charles de Gaulle to fight for the liberation of France from German control and for the restoration of the republic
Erwin Rommel
German field marshal noted for brilliant generalship in North Africa during World War II (1891-1944)
Battle of Stalingrad
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union.
Admiral chester Nimitz
He was the commander of the Pacific Fleet during WW2, and he was the man who directed the U.S. victories at Midway, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa
General George c. Marshall
chief of staff during world war II who helped plan the invasion of northern france
General George S. Patton
American General who pushed German troops into Tunisia and saved the allied forces at the battle of the bulge
Pietro Badoglio
Italian fascist who rules after Mussolini and with whom the US negotiates a surrender (so much for unconditional surrender--Stalin embittered)
Battle of Midway
1942 World War II battle between the United States and Japan, a turning point in the war in the Pacific
Churchill
British Prime Minister who opposed the policy of appeasement and led Great Britain through World War II
Bernard Montgomery
British General who cut off Rommel from advancing into Africa
Anti-Inflation Act of 1942
freezes wages, prices, and rents to prevent inflation caused by rationing and supply shortages
War Production Board
During WWII, FDR established it to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers
Gee System
a new navigation sustem that navigated better bomb raids`
Fair Employment Practices Commission
State and local laws governing equal employment opportunity that are often more comprehensive than federal laws and apply to small employers
Ira Hayes
Native American hero in the battle for Iwo Jima in the Pacific
Zoot-Suit Riots
Racial tensions that erupted between young Mexican-Americans and U.S. sailors
WAVEs
Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service in the Navy
Internment Camps
Detention centers where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by order of the President.
Harry S. Truman
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb
Office of Price Administration
WWII Office that installs price controls on essential items to prevent inflation
U-Boats
German submarines
Code-Talkers
Navajo troops who used their language to send messages in a code the Japanese were never able to break
Rose the riveter
Icon of women's involvement in industrious work during WW2
Baby boom
An increase in population by almost 30 million people. This spurred a growth in suburbs and three to four children families.
Korematsu v. US
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 2 each survivor
Election of 1944
Year in which Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey for president and John W, Bricker (an isolationist senator) for vice president. Democrats renominated Roosevelt but changed vice president to Harry S. Truman. Roosevelt won with sweeping victory. 4th term for Roosevelt.
Revenue Act of 1942
raised corporation taxes and required nearly all Americans to pay income taxes.
Boeing B17
is a four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps
A. Philip Randolph
Black leader, who threatens a march to end discrimination in the work place; Roosevelt gives in with companies that get federal grants.
Congress of Racial Equality
a civil rights organization. They were famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity, leading to the passing of civil rights legislation.
Braceros
Mexican workers that were brought to America to work when so many men and women were gone from home during World War II that there weren't enough workers.
WACs
The women allowed to serve in non-combat units.
War Relocation Authority
It sent Japanese Americans to internment camps located in desolate areas in California, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Idaho, and Arkansas.
Thomas E. Dewey
republican candidate who lost to FDR in election of 1944
Strategic Bombing
a military strategy used in a WWII where the Allies bombed the Japanese for days on end with the goal of weakening their defenses and bringing them to a surrender (which they never do)
Dwight D. Eisenhower
leader of the Allied forces in Europe then was elected to be Pres. of the USA
Victory in Europe
V-E Day, Battle of Atlantic, D-Day/Operation Overload
Battle of Okinawa
(1945) World War II victory for the Allied troops that resulted in the deaths of almost all of the 100,000 Japanese defenders; the battle claimed 12,000 American lives
Luftwaffe
German airforce
Battle of Saint-Lo
General Omar Bradley's first army smashed through the German lines in order to break out of Normandy
Battle of Leyte Gulf
1944 World War II naval battle betweeen the United States and Japan. Largest naval engagement in history. Japaneze navy was defeated.
Emperor Hirohito
124th emperor of Japan, surrendered to US after 2nd atomic bombing in Nagasaki
D-Day
..., June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Battle of Iwo Jima
American battle on Japanese territory in which 30,000 marines helped assist in amphibious assaults. Involved the US's territorial claim of Mount Suribachi to defeat the Japanese
Battle of the Bulge
A 1944-1945 battle in which Allied forces turned back the last major German offensive of World War II.
Enola Gay
American plane that dropped the first atomic bomb
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Charles Evans Hughes
A reformist Republican governor of New York, who had gained fame as an investigator of malpractices by gas and insurance companies and by the coal trust. He later ran against Wilson in the 1916 election.
Nine-Power Pact
pledged a continuation of the Open Door policy in China
Dawes Plan
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.
National Socialists
political regime that later turned into the Nazis.
Manchurian Crisis
Japan wanted some of China's natural resources and space. in 1932 Japan annexed an area in Manchuria after an alleged attack by the Chinese in 1931. League of Nations did nothing
Harding
"return to normalcy" guy, was calm and stability after turmoil of progressive era and WWI
Washington Conference of 1921
1921 - president harding invited delegates from europe and japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other's possessions, and to respect china's independence
Five-Power Pact
What was the agreement made during the Washington Naval Conference when Great Britain, the US, Japan, France, and Italy all accepted limits on the size of their navies and a 10 year moratorium on building battleships
Four Power Pact
(WH) , An agreement made by the United States, Britain, France, and Japan to not seek further Pacific expansion or increased naval strength in the region. The countries also agreed to respect the Pacific holdings of the other countries signing the agreement. The signatories agreed to consult each other in the event of a dispute over territorial possessions
Benito Mussolini
Fascist Dictator of Italy that at first used bullying to gain power, then never had full power.
World Economic Conference 1933
June 1933 representatives of the leading industrial nations met in London to discuss a collective international response to the Great Depression.
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
Cash-and-carry
Term for the President's discretionary authority to require that warring nations who purchased goods other than arms or munitions had to pay in cash and then carry them away in its own ships, an ingenious scheme to preserve a profitable trade without running the risk of war.
Francisco Franco
Fascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and Mussolini
Anschluss
The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.
Sudetenland
an area in western Czechoslovakia that was coveted by Hitler
Neville Chamberlain
1938; gullible British Prime Minister; declared that Britain and France would fight if Hitler attacked Poland.
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
Agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union not to fight one another, which allowed Hitler to concentrate on a one front war once the war started
Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934
Activated the low tariff policies of New Dealers, aimed at both relief, recover, reversed the traditional high protective tariff
Neutrality acts
4 laws passed in the late 1930s that were designed to keep the US out of international incidents
Abyssinian Crisis
December 1934 Italian troops crossed the border into Abyssinia. Mussolini invaded and fought one sided war. Economic sanctions were placed by League of Nations, but were soon abandoned.
Militarization of the Rhineland
• Refers to the increased presence of police and national security agents along the borer, in addition to the strategy of policing the southern border through two specific strategie
Lebensraum
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people
Munich Conference
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
Policy of Appeasement
policy of granting concessions to potential enemies to maintain peace; wanted to avoid war
The Phony War
the period of time after Germany had taken Poland and the Allies declared war on the Axis, when the Western front was particularly quiet, both countries simply mobilizing, but doing no harm to each other
Vichy France
Southern Pro-Nazi French; govern themselves as loyal to nazis; traitors to the Free French in N. France
America First Committee
A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.
Burke-Wadsworth Act
Law passed by Congress in 1940 creating the first peacetime draft in American History.
Atlantic Charter
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
Hideki tojo
This general was premier of Japan during World War II while this man was dictator of the country. He gave his approval for the attack on Pearl Harbor and played a major role in Japan's military decisions until he resigned in 1944
Blitzkrieg
"Lighting war", type of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939
Lend-lease
1941 law that authorized the president to aid any nation whose defense he believed was vital to American security
Tipartite Pact
Mutual defense treaty between the Axis powers was aimed at keeping the US out of the war.