OT732 Peds Final

1) Based on the homunculus map, which part of the body takes up the largest portion of the brain?

2)Which comes first: Big movements or precise movements?
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Developmental Milestones Part 1

1)What can the baby do with their arms at 1 month?

2) 2 Months: What body position can the baby get into and what does this require?

3)3 months--- What can the baby do with their UEs? What is occurring with the grasp reflex?

4)4 months: What can babies do with their arms and what system does this develop?

5)5 months: Babies have the ability to produce what movement?

6) 6 months: What can the baby begin to do with their body? What major developmental milestone starts to emerge here?
1) Hold them up

2) Tummy time---requires ability to stabilize with arms and get head off mat

3)Ability to grab objects; grasp reflex is becoming integrated so we can do more than just open and close our hands

4)Can prop open and extend arms; important for development of proprioception so we can know where our arms start and end

5)Rolling over--requires momentum of arm and flinging arm across body

6)Can prop self up with purpose; Language starts to develop as they can lift their head up and build neck strength, which opens their airway
Developmental Milestones, Part 2

1) 7 months: What body position can babies go into? What does this require? What system does this help develop?

2) 8 months: What body position can babies go into?

3) 9 months: What milestone/ability is achieved?

4)10 months: What position can babies go into? What are the arms doing?

5)11 months: What are the arms doing while standing?

6)12 months: What motor milestone is achieved?
1)Can get onto hands and knees; requires ability to bear weight through arms, hips and knees; important for visual system development

2)Sitting up--allows ability to use arms to explore

3)Ability to reach for things in front of them

4)Can start to stand--both arms used to pull body to stand, and to hold themselves up

5) uses one arm to stabilize while standing, other arm to grab objects

6)Ability to stand without using arms; can start concentrating on walking
Developmental milestones part 3

1)True or False: When baby turns 12 months and begins to walk, a loss of language ability is a cause for concern.

2)True or False: Can be an early walker or an early talker, but CANNOT be both

3)What month can baby wave arm?

4)What month can baby grab anything?

5)What month can baby use one hand to do one thing while other hand does something else?
For each of the fine motor skills activities, give the age range at which they occur/develop:

1)Holding an object

2)trying to reach for objects, putting things in mouth

3)trying to hold food, using hand and fingers to play games

4)scribble on paper, trying to play throw and catch with the ball

5)Drawing lines with pencil, using a spoon to eat food with little help

6)Brushing teeth and buttons the cloth with help

7)Builds using building blocks, uses a pencil to draw, turn pages of a book

8)Draws various shapes very easily, brushes and combs without support, cuts shapes very clearly
Hand/Reaching Skills

1)Does reaching develop from asymmetrical to symmetrical, or vice versa?

2)does reaching develop from midline to periphery or vice versa?

3)Does reaching develop from linear to rotary or vice versa?

4)The typical progression is to go from non-prehensile to prehensile. What does this mean?

5)Activities such as holding a pencil require what hand skill?
1)symmetrical to asymetrical---progress from reaching with both hands to only reaching with one

2)Midline to periphery---can grab at midline before being grab at the side

3)Linear before rotary---will reach straight out for something before reaching around something (i.e. will reach for the toy directly in front of them before reaching for a toy behind another toy)

4)Prehensile= ability to use fingers independently of each other (non-prehensile= cannot use fingers in a higher-level coordinated manner)

5)Prehensile ability--each finger is doing something different
1)can override precision--too much of an equilibrium response can cause automatic movement of extending both arms out to preventfalling when trying to do precise movements

2)too low or too high of tone in the body leads to too low or too high of tone in the hands (too high and too low are both problematic)

3)Rest of body must be able to adjust to keep stability while hands can focus on manipulating the objects they are working with
Sensory Factors

1)What refers to knowing where the joint or body part is?

2)What refers to the body's awareness that it is moving---i.e. let's us know we are moving and how we are moving (forward, backward, etc.); knowing body position while moving

3)Which sensory factors are involved in the following?: -knowing your foot is in the ground in front of you
-knowing you are walking forward

4)How is kinesthesia assessed/tested?

5)What body parts are involved proprioception? What receptors are involved in sending information to the body?

6) Which sensory factor is involved in knowing hot vs cold, dry vs wet, etc.?


3)-knowing foot on ground in front of you= proprioception
-knowing you are walking forward= kinesthesia

4)cover eyes; move one arm into one position. Have client move their other arm to imitate the first arm's position

5)Involves vestibular organs (inner ear for rotation, acceleration and position) and eyes; Stretch receptors are used

6)Tactile discrimination
What are 4 biomechanical factors involved in hand usage abilities?ROM, strength, endurance, physiology*Handedness* 1)True or false: Handedness has relations to genetics 2)How is handedness related to language? 3)By what age should a strong hand dominance be established? 4)What can be used as a clue to determine handedness?1)True 2)They are tied together; Handedness comes about when language is more established 3)By 5 years of age (typical children may switch back and forth between left and right hand dominance through their 4th year) 4)Which hand they eat with*Review from Jeopardy game* 1)Non-verbal children are more likely to have trouble with developing what? 2)At what age can children draw shapes easily and cut them out? 3) "You need _____ before mobility" 4)What type of learning does engaging in play develop? 5)Having a sense of where your joint position is is called? 6)How is an internal schema developed in infants? 7)At what age can you turn the page of a board book? paper book?1)Hand dominance 2)5-7 years old 3)you need stability before mobility 4) Experiential learning 5)Proprioception 6)putting things in their mouths 7)-board book (thicker) = 12-15 months -thin paper book= 3-5 years*Exam 1 review* 1)What is the best clinical rationale to use a compensatory approach to promote child's ADL participation? 2)Which pre-writing skills is expected to emerge the latest? (hint: think shapes) 3)True or False: Bilateral coordination and postural control are included in early education.1)Helps the parent 2)Copying a triangle 3)FALSE1)Can you be diagnosed specifically with Sensory processing disorder (SPD)? 2)What is the sensory system involved in the sensations related to the physiological condition of the body (i.e., ability to know if you are hungry, need to go to the bathroom, etc.)? 3)What are the 3 proximal senses that are the focus of SI treatment? 4)When do the proximal senses develop? 5)What is the function of the 3 proximal senses?1)no, it is NOT an actual diagnosis--umbrella term for problems with sensory integration and processing 2)Interoception 3)tactile, proprioception, vestibular 4)in utero 5)organize and modulate the overall system*Two types of sensory processing* 1)What are 7 areas of the brain (CNS) involved in SI dysfunction? *Cortical vs Subcortical sensory processing* 2)Which is more specialized and involved in specific analysis of sensory input? 3)Which is more diffuse and less specialized? 4)Which begins processing of proximal senses? 5)Which directs precise, skilled responses? 6)What is the role of subcortical sensory processing? 7)What is the cortical sensory processing involved? 8)In general, which sensory processing system REACTS to sensory input vs RESPONDS?1)Prefrontal cortex, pituitary gland, amygdala, brainstem, hippocampus, cerebellum, hypothalamus 2)Cortical 3)Subcortical 4)Subcortical 5)Cortical 6)Filters and organizes sensory input which passes through the thalamus first 7)involved in higher level tasks such as complex motor skills, academic learning, and behavioral self-regulation 8)Reacts= subcortical--more primitive Responds= Cortical sensory processing*Prevalence of SPD and Physiological Evidence of SI problems research findings* 1)What are 2 common concurrent diagnoses? 2)What is the prevalence of SI issues in the typical pediatric population vs those with developmental delays vs those with autism? 3)Electro-dermal reactivity: Those considered sensory defensive vs typically developing children had more or less SNS reactivity to vestibular input? 4)EEG: Describe findings regarding habituation and sound discrimination 5)White matter microstructural integrity: Showed reduced integrity in ____?1)autism and ADHD 2)-Typical pediatric population= 5-16% -Developmental delays= 40-80% -ASD= 96% 3)More SNS reactivity 4)-lacked expected habituation response -decreased efficiency in discriminating sounds 5)Posterior white matter1)What do those with tactile defensiveness exhibit? 2)Trying to stay on the ground or trying to cling to parent, extreme fearfulness during low intensity movement or when anticipating movement, and avoidance of tilting the head may be signs of what? 3)What causes #2? 4)What do those with auditory defensiveness exhibit? 5)What is fear of full body movement due to limited postural or motor control?1)High sensitivity to touch sensations that the majority of people do not find bothersome 2) Gravitational insecurity 3)Over-responsiveness to vestibular sensation---specifically to pull of gravity and vertical movement through space (changes in head position and movement) 4)-unable to pay attention to one voice or sound without being distracted by other sounds -distressed by noises that are loud, sudden, metallic, or high-pitched 5)Postural insecurity*Ayres sensory integration, part 1* 1)What are the 5 ASI dysfunction patterns? 2)Which relates to difficulty identifying, discriminating, and interpreting sensation in *more than one sensory* system? 3)Which is described by inefficient vestibular processing, associated with poor postural, ocular, and bilateral function? 4)Which is described by poor sensory perception and difficulty with motor planning/praxis? 5)Which is described as difficulty with BOTH visual perception and visual-motor planning? 6)What are the two categories of sensory reactivity that are considered problematic1)Poor sensory perception, somatodyspraxia, vestibular and bilateral integration deficits, visuodyspraxia, and sensory reactivity 2)Poor sensory perception 3)Vestibular and integration deficits 4)Somatodyspraxia 5)Visuodyspraxia 6)-hyperreactivity--excessive or exaggerated reactions to typical sensation that interferes with daily life -Hyporeactivity--absent or reduced reactions that interfere with daily life*Ayres sensory integration, Part 2* 1)Which pattern is associated with tactile discrimination AND proprioceptive input AND vestibular input AND etc.... 2)Which is associated with trouble riding a bike, sitting upright in a chair, imitating other children's writing, etc. 3)Which is associated with difficulties in tactile perception AND imitating, motor planning, or execution of actions (praxis)? 4)Which pattern is related to the skills of posture/balance, ocular motor control, bilateral integration, and sequencing? 5)Which is associated with low perceptual scores (space visualization, figure-ground, manual form perception/stereognosis) AND visual-motor scores (design copying, motor accuracy)1)Poor sensory proprioception 2)Vestibular and bilateral integration deficits 3)Somatodyspraxia 4)Vestibular and bilateral integration deficits 5)Visuodyspraxia*Based on Ayres Sensory Integration Model..* 1)If a child is chronologically at the age of 10 but is cognitively at the age level of 2, and visual perceptual/visual-motor scores are also at age level of 2, can you say they have visodyspraxia? 2)What are some assessments that can be used?NO---visual perceptual/visual motor scores are consistent with cognitive age (need to base the Ayres pattern on cognitive level and not age level because children with low cognition will have issues with visual perception and visual motor-planning 2)EASI, SIPT, BOT, Beery VMI, DTVP, Sensory Profile, SPM*Dunn's Model of Sensory Processing* 1)Self-regulation techniques: What are active vs passive techniques? 2)What are the 4 quadrants? 3)What assessment is used in this model?1)-Active= engage in behaviors to manage or control sensory input -Passive= allow sensory experiences to happen and then react 2)Seeking/seeker, registration/bystander, sensitivity/sensory, avoiding/avoider 3)Sensory Profile-2*Dunn's Model Quadrants* 1-4: Give whether threshold is high or low, and whether they have active or passive self-regulation 1)Seeking/seeker 2)Registration/bystander 3)Sensitivity/Sensory 4)Avoiding/avoider 5)Which are more engaged in sensory experiences? 6)Which is more likely to run from unfamiliar situations? 7)Which is more likely to miss sensory cues than others? 8)Which will react more quickly and intensely than others?1)high threshold, active self-regulation 2)high threshold, passive self-regulation 3)low threshold, passive self-regulation 4)low threshold, active self-regulation 5)Seeking/seeker 6)Avoiding/avoider 7)Registration/bystander 8)Sensitivity/sensory1)Clumsiness (difficulty transferring from one position to another), difficulty generating goals for actions/ideas, inadequate body scheme (difficulty relating their bodies in physical objects in environmental space, etc.), limited motor actions indicate problems with what? 2)What are the 3 components required to be included for ASI intervention? 3)Modulation issue intervention involves adapting what? 4)Intervention for sensory seeking involves what 3 aspects? 5)State the sensory system each intervention for sensory discrimination problems pertains to: a)category games b)Simon Says c)playing games involving stereognosis focusing on describing features with touch, d)"same-different" game where you say two words and they have to say if they are the same or different 6)Graded activities that include movement of head and body, postural adjustments, and visual stabilization are interventions for what type of issues? 7)Breaking new tasks into smaller steps, repeating instructions, using physical/visual guidance, and giving first/then directions are intervention strategies for what?1)Praxis 2)-active participation---sensory input organized and actively used by child to respond to environment -Adaptive response---child actively uses sensation to organize goal-directed actions on the environment -positive feedback loop (adaptive response--neural plasticity--CNS attains higher level of sensory integration capability--child seeks further engagement) 3)Adapting input in terms of: -quality---intensity, variety -Quantity---duration, and frequency during all daily activities and routines 4)-creating a structure/organization within child's activity of choice -*intensifying* sensory experiences the child is seeking -Providing safe, appropriate ways to experience sensations frequently and regularly throughout daily routine 5)-Visual=category games -Auditory= same-different game -Proprioception= Simon says -Tactile= stereognosis games 6)Vestibular-bilateral issues (ex: having child throw ball at a vestibular target and having them retrieve the ball after) 7)Praxis problems1)What is the goal of ASI intervention? (in terms of CNS) 2)What are the 3 components of praxis? 3)Based on ASI, what are the 4 "ingredients" for an adaptive response?1)create optimal CNS arousal level 2)Ideation, planning, and execution 3)-active participation -just-right challenge -intrinsic motivation -opportunities for problem solving1)What are 5 things you need to determine if something is behavioral from an OT standpoint? 2)OT vs ABA: Which uses processes to examine vs extinguish? What's the difference? 3)OT vs ABA: Which uses client-centered approach and focuses on functional goals to be able to live in society? 4)What are the ABC's?-Developmental age (i.e. 2 years have more tantrums than 8 year olds) -Cognitive level (need to work at this level, not chronological age) -consider communication abilities (behaviors replace words when they can't be used) -look at environment -consider options available to child 2)-OT: *examines* the reasoning for behavior, determines function, functional impact, etc.; won't take away the behavior for not reason -ABA: *extinguishes* the behavior 3) OT 4)-Antecedent: precedes behavior -Behavior: The action -Consequence: Of the behaviorWhat are the 5 steps to gathering behavioral data?1)describe what child does--define the behavior 2)examine the immediate antecedents 3)examine remote antecedents (i.e. if they had breakfast in the morning, if their schedule for the day changed, etc.) 4)determine consequences of behavior 5)examine how behavior is reinforcedName and describe the levels of the Behavioral needs pyramid from bottom to top1)Basic needs---hungry, tired, sleepy, etc. 2)Safety needs---in safe environment and protected from harm (i.e. away from bullies in school, etc.) 3)Social needs--feeling and love and compassion; feeling belonged 4)Esteem needs--positive self-image and genuine self-esteem 5)Self-actualization-- being creative, having fun with life, being content, feeling you have a real meaning to your life1)What are three situational factors to keep in mind when examining behavior? 2)What are 4 task factors? 3)Why is time of session important to keep in mind? 4)What are 3 ways to control the environment during sessions? 5)When providing verbal instructions during sessions, what should you avoid?1)-overstimulation (from environment, therapist interaction style, sounds/smells, etc.) -unfamiliarity -separation (from caregiver or from routine) 2)-clear expectations -"just-right" challenge -meaningful -actively engaged 3)time of day affects behavior; ex)sessions after 5:30pm are not good for younger children because they will be very tired 4)-eliminate extraneous aversive sensory stimuli (dim lights, lower sounds, avoid accidental touch) -organize the environment -create physical boundaries (using mats as walls, etc.) 5)Avoid asking questions---i.e. should say "we're working on handwriting now" and NOT "do you want to work on handwriting now?". Also avoid using "Okay?"*Contingency schedules---REVIEW* -continuous reinforcement--intermittent -reinforcement--fading -token economy*review in book*1)During interventions, you notice the behavior is getting worse. Is this cause for concern? 2)What are 3 common behavioral skills in need of learning? 3)You show a candy box to a 3 year old child and say the box is full of candy. You lift the lid, and you reveal the box is actually full of pencils and NOT candy. You then ask the child what their friend would think is in the box. Would the 3 year old child say their friend would think there is candy in the box, or pencils? 4)^ what about a 4-year old?1)No; normal for behavior to worsen temporarily before improving 2)-specific social behaviors -awareness of social norms -understand perspective of others (theory of mind---i.e., knowing a toy you want isn't necessarily a toy someone else wants) 3)The child would say their friend would think there is pencils in the box (i.e. the child thinks that because he knows what's actually in box, and knows that it was a trick, then the friend will know too even if they've never seen it) 4)would say the friend would think there is candy in the box, because the 4 year old realizes that the friend has not seen what's inside the box yet----has theory of mind more developed1)What are 3 aspects of executive functioning? 2)Friendships at ages 3-6 years old are described as what? 3)^ 6-9 year olds 4)^9-13 year olds 5)^adolescence to adulthood1)-working memory -inhibitory control -cognitive flexibility 2)having common foundations--i.e. each like playing on a swing 3)having common mutual activities---i.e. can play catch together 4)have companionship, trust and loyalty; i.e. one can get upset when their best friend talks to someone else 5)based on character and compatibility---both have same values*Theoretical approaches* 1)What approach does self-determination take? 2)What is the social cognitive theory (Bandura)? 3)What is the behavioral theoretical approach? 4)What is the sensory modulation theoretical approach?1)client-centered approach 2)friendship is the way of fitting in 3)we are trained by society to find people to ally with 4)we choose friends and social interactions based on our own sensory needsWhat are some (7) intervention strategies/approaches around friendship and social skills?-can use group format -look at self-regulation -allow for discussion -use role playing -provide video feedback -use cooperative play and tasks to practice skills -provide education to the family*Evidence/what the research shows for social skills interventions* 1)Recommended to provide intervention for younger age or older age? 2)How should the family be incorpoated? 3)Use of what model are beneficial for higher functioning children? 4)Social skills interventions lead to positive outcomes with what? (6 things)1)younger 2)provide training and education 3)Peer models *(review)* 4)-social understanding -joint attention -play development -language -communication -adaptive behaviors*Child Abuse* 1)Rates of abuse and neglect are 5 times higher for what population of children? 2)Rates of abuse and neglect are 3 times higher for what population of children? 3)In general, what is the rate for children who have experienced abuse/neglect in the past year? 4)What is the definition of child abuse? 5)What type of abuse or children with behavioral disabilities more likely to experience? Children who are non-verbal or hearing-impaired?1)Those from low SES families 2)those with disabilities 3)1 in 7 children 4)any recent act of failure to act on part i. of a parent which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation 5)-Behavioral: physical abuse -Non-verbal/hearing-impaired: neglect or sexual abuse1)How does vision differ from visual perception?1)Vision= what you see (i.e., a cat) Visual perception= understanding, organizing, and making sense of visual information (i.e, understanding the object you see is a cat)*Typical development for visual perception skills* 1)Describe visual perception skills for newborns (what can they see in terms of distance, 4 things they respond to) 2)When does the ability to focus on objects and track movement appear? 3)Describe abilities at 4 months 4)Describe abilities at 6 months 5)What is the significance of the period between 7-12 months for visual perception skills? 6)Ages 2-6 years: What connections are being formed? What important skill develops which helps with visual perceptual and visual motor skills?1)can see distance between mother's breast and her face (8-12 inches); respond to patterns, contrast, edges, and size differences 2) 2 months 3)discovers midline; can bring objects to mouth 4)puts objects in mouth then looks; drops objects then looks; can learn cause and effect 5)-babies are on the move -rolling and crawling provides new information and different visual input -helps learn perspective changes as you move in relation to environment -can internalize the meanings of: on, under, over, in, out, up, down, through 6)-can connect sensory experiences with vision -language emerges, which allows you to label experiences which leads to honing of visual perceptual and visual motor skillsWhat can occur if you do not allow babies to look and turn their head in different directions (what can occur) *Container generation*If keep babies too long/too much in car seats, bouncy seats, play pens, etc., can develop plagiocephaly---abnormal growth of head due to being in a container too much1)At what age do kids typically get glasses? Why this age? 2)UC Berkeley study: What did the study indicate about prediction?1) 7 years old ---this is the age where the eye becomes an adult eye (same size and shape as adult eye); problems at 7 years old will not go away. automatically 2)can predict which kids will need glasses for astigmatism, near- and far-sightedness*Factors that can interrupt visual perceptual skills* 1)Baby can be born with what eye disease/condition? 2)How does cerebral palsy effect visual perceptual skills? 3)^ Down syndrome? 4)Environmental factors? 5)ADHD? 6)Neurological issues?1)Cataracts 2)eye muscles are disrupted--cannot look around easily 3)low tone in eye muscles 4)environmental deprivation--i.e., if the only thing there is too look at is the TV 5)not able to map all the details of an object because not studying long enough due to lack of attention 6)TBI, hypoxia, concussions, etc., can lead to visual perceptual skill disruption*Oculomotor control* 1)What is oculomotor control important for? (describe what they are) 2)Using movement, flashlight chase, lazy eight drawings, marbles, race cars, and mazes are treatment activities for what aspect of oculomotor control? 3)^ trampoline, swings, obstacle courses, I spy1)-tracking: following moving target with eyes -scanning: moving objects over stationary targets to find what you want -focusing on environment 2)Tracking 3)Scanning*For each of the following skills, provide the definition* 1)Discrimination 2)Parts to Whole 3)Figure ground 4)Spatial relations 5)Form constancy1)-discriminating between like and different, shape, size, pattern, form, position, color 2)understanding how part relates to whole, and aware of part and can integrate parts into a whole 3)ability to see figure as distinct from background 4)ability to recognize position in space in relation to another; relationship of objects in space to each other (i.e., in, out, up, down, under, behind) 5)ability to perceive an object despite variability (ex: can tell an object is a mug no matter what angle you look at it from)*Discrimination, parts to whole, figure ground, spatial relations, form constancy* 1)Trouble noting details denotes dysfunction of which skill? 2)^ not being able to find anything; trouble listening; appear inattentive and disorganized; trouble scanning and finding target in busy environment (i.e. cannot find mom in crowded store) 3)^being unable to copy a drawing 4)^confusion and anxiety; unable to find objects in environment; unable to generalize pictures that have changes; clumsiness 5)^Visual world distorted; difficulty following directions that involve objects; easily lost; cannot orient self in new environment; difficulty with sports; difficulty with parts to whole 6)What skill can matching games and "What's the difference?" promote? 7)^hidden picture books, I spy, Where's Waldo, sorting tasks? 8)^manipulatives; parts to whole and figure ground activities; setting up a doll house; setting table for tea party 9)^pattern blocks, assembly games such as puzzles 10)What should you always use when treating problems related to parts to whole and spatial relations?1)discrimination 2)Figure ground 3)Parts to whole 4)Form constancy (aka perceptual constancy) 5)Spatial relations 6)discrimination 7)Figure ground 8)Spatial relations 9)Parts to whole 10)A model to reference to*Discrimination, parts to whole, figure ground, spatial relations, form constancy, Part 2* 1)Which skills is crucial for math problems, learning sight words and report writing? 2)Which skill is needed for finding a specific kitchen tool in a drawer full of kitchen tools? 3)What are 3 skills needed for #2? 4)What knowledge is needed for spatial relations? (schema) 5)What are the three parts of the learning triangle? 6)Difficulty in what skill leads to what school problems such as poor letter/word formation, letter reversals, difficulty placing letters on baseline, trouble orienting garments, cannot read analog clock1)parts to whole relationship 2)Figure ground 3)Attention, ability to shift focus, good oculomotor skills 4)-body awareness: how many arms, legs, eyes, ears you have -body schema: internal knowledge of where body parts are 5)Auditory, vision, vestibular--> all are inter-connected for spatial relations 6)Spatial relations*Drawing Development in children* 1)What stage occurs at 2 years? 2)3-4 years 3)6 years 4)8-10 years1)scribbling stage 2)preschematic stage: conscious creation of form which provides record of child's thinking process (i.e. may draw a circle for a head and two vertical lines for legs) 3)Schematic stage: child develops a schema which is a definitive way of portraying an object; has a definite order in space relationships where everything sits on a baseline 4)Gang stage, the dawning realism: child learns schematic generalization no longer suffices to express reality; knowing how things really look and drawn for more detail for individual parts; children become more critical of their work*Visual memory* 1)What does this skill entail? 2)What is short term visual memory needed for? 3)What type of memory skill reading and math word problems require? 4)What type is needed for test-taking or adding new info to previously learned material? 5)What are some problems that occur due to visual memory deficits? 6)Though visual memory impairments are hard to treat, what are some things you can do? (what can you change, how can you accommodate the individual, and what games can be used)1)Storing and retrieving visual images 2)copying from a board 3)Active working memory 4)long-term memory 5)-cannot remember visual experiences -cannot remember what you read -difficulty making visual associations -trouble with spelling and reading -difficulty visualizing 6)-change the modality -allow cheat sheets/reminder cards -memory activities such as matching games*Dyslexia* 1)Affects what % of the population? 2)What is required in order to receive dyslexia diagnosis? 3)What is the definition of dyslexia?1) 20% 2)must have average to above average IQ 3)Unexpected difficulty in reading in individual who has the intelligence to be a better reader