1. PERSONAL OBSERVATION (aka MBWA/management by walking around): firsthand, intimate knowledge of the actual activity; the most widely used; gives supervisors opportunities to "read between the lines"
2. STATISTICAL REPORTS: utilizes, but is not limited to, computers; includes graphs, bar charts, and numerical displays
3. ORAL REPORTS: conferences, meetings, and one-to-one conversations; advantages are they are fast, allow for feedback, permit language expression and tone of voice to convey meaning
4. WRITTEN REPORTS: advantages are they offer greater comprehensiveness and conciseness and are easier to catalog and reference; often combined with statistical reports; used to precede or follow-up with oral reports