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Friedland Chapter 9

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Aquifers
permeable layer of rock and sediment
Unconfined Aquifer
water can flow in easily, upper layer permeable
Confined Aquifer
water cannot flow in easily, both layers impermeable
Water table
uppermost level at which the water in an area fully saturates the rock or soil
Groundwater
underground source of water
Artesian Well
groundwater under pressure, flows out easily, no pump required
Cone of depression
deep well removes water from surround shallow wells
Saltwater Intrusion
ocean water replaces depleted fresh groundwater
Floodplain
area surrounding river or stream that floods periodically
Oligotrophic Lake
cold, nutrient poor lake with high levels of oxygen
Eutrophic Lake
warm, nutrient rich lake with low levels of oxygen
Impermeable Surfaces
water is not able to pass through
Levee
man made stream banks to prevent overflow of river
Dike
man made banks to prevent overflow of ocean water
Dam
a barrier that funs across a river to control the flow of the water
Reservoir
water storage area behind a dam
Fish Ladders
built to allow migrating fish species to climb the face of a dam
Aqueducts
a canal or ditch used to transport water from one location to another
Desalination
process to remove salt from sea water
Irrigation
provides water to agriculture
Drip Irrigation
most efficient method of irrigation
Hydroponic Agriculture
plants grow in water without soil
Gray water
uncontaminated waste water