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permeable layer of rock and sediment

Unconfined Aquifer

water can flow in easily, upper layer permeable

Confined Aquifer

water cannot flow in easily, both layers impermeable

Water table

uppermost level at which the water in an area fully saturates the rock or soil


underground source of water

Artesian Well

groundwater under pressure, flows out easily, no pump required

Cone of depression

deep well removes water from surround shallow wells

Saltwater Intrusion

ocean water replaces depleted fresh groundwater


area surrounding river or stream that floods periodically

Oligotrophic Lake

cold, nutrient poor lake with high levels of oxygen

Eutrophic Lake

warm, nutrient rich lake with low levels of oxygen

Impermeable Surfaces

water is not able to pass through


man made stream banks to prevent overflow of river


man made banks to prevent overflow of ocean water


a barrier that funs across a river to control the flow of the water


water storage area behind a dam

Fish Ladders

built to allow migrating fish species to climb the face of a dam


a canal or ditch used to transport water from one location to another


process to remove salt from sea water


provides water to agriculture

Drip Irrigation

most efficient method of irrigation

Hydroponic Agriculture

plants grow in water without soil

Gray water

uncontaminated waste water

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