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273 terms

N201 Unit 3 - 4

BMTCP 210
STUDY
PLAY
barrel
the graduated tubular outer portion of the syringe; he outer wall of the barrel has a scale calibrated in mL's or minims and the inner wall must remain sterile
bevel
the distal, tapered open end of the shaft of the needle; must remain sterile
gauge
the diameter of the needle lumen
hilt
the junction between the hub and shaft; must remain sterile
hub
the wide base portion of the needle that fits over the syringe tip
knob
the distal end of the plunger; the only part of the plunger which can be touched in order to maintain sterility
lumen
the hollow inside diameter of the shaft of a needle
needle guard
cap that protects the needle and helps maintain sterility
prefilled medication cartridge
commercially prepared single dose medication that has a needle permanently attached to a calibrated barrel
plunger
the solid inner movable portion of a syringe that is pushed within the barrel, via the knob, to administer liquid medication
safety syringes
syringe that comes with the needle already attached and is equipped with a retraction device that retracts the needle into the syringe once the injection is complete
Shaft
the long, cylindrical hollow tube of the needle
tip
the small end of the syringe that fits into the needle hub when assembling the needle and syringe together; it must remain sterile
vial
glass or plastic container that has a self-sealing rubber stopper
deltoid muscle
allows only small amounts of medication to be injected; avoid hitting the humerus
vastus lateralis
muscle located on the anterior lateral aspect of the thigh
rectus femoris
located on the anterior aspect of thigh and can be used for IM injection
ventrogluteral muscle
located on the side of the hip, just below the iliac crest
dorsogluteal muscle
located in the upper, outer quadrant of the gluteal muscle
air lock technique
clears the needle of medication and seals the track so that the medication does not flow back into the subcutaneous tissue
z-track method
reduces pain caused by irritating drugs that leak or escape along the track into the subcutaneous tissue when the needle is withdrawn
parenteral administration
medication administration routes not via the GI tract, which requires the use of a syringe and needle or intravenous catheter to introduce medication into the body tissues
indications of parenteral administration
patient can't take medications by mouth, hasten the action of the drug, digestive juices would counteract the effect of the drug given
accurate dose and route of medication
it is essential to observe this precaution when administering parenteral medication
correct site
to prevent damage to tissue when injections are given
sterile equipment and aseptic thechnique
to prevent infection,this is one of the essential precaution to observe when administering parenteral drug
3 mL
syringe size large enough for most subcutaneous and intramscular injections
U-100
used to give insulin, needle is part of the syringe and not removable
1 mL
tuberculin syringe is used to give small doses
needles
are the metal tube through which liquid medication flows
hub
part of the needle which fits onto the end of a syringe
hollow shaft
also called cannula
bevel
slanted part of the needle
lumen
inner part of the cannula
filter needles
used when preparing medications from an ampule
subQ injection
involves the administration of a medication to the loose connective tissues that lie between the epidermis and the muscle
0.5 - 1 mL
amount of fluid the subQ space can tolerate
sciatic nerve
the greatest risk in dorsogluteal muscle parenteral admin is the damage to this
ID injection
involves injecting a medication into the dermis where blood supply is reduced and absorption is slower than in an IM and subQ
IM injection
is the administration of a solution containing medication into a muscle or muscle group
0.5 - 3 inches
in orderf to penetrate the muscle, the needle length used is ____ in length
18 - 27 G
in order to penetrate the muscle, the needle gauge used is _____ in diameter
heparin and allergy shots
contraindication of massaging the insection site
slowly injecting
irritation can be reduced by _______ the medication
massaging
reduces irritation and stimulates absorption of the medication
subQ injection
used for injecting small amounts and given in the upper portion of the back of the arm, anterior thigh or abdomen
45 to 90 degree
needle is inserted at a ______ angle depending on the size of the needle and the individual
30-60 min
check parenteral administrated medication to asses for desired effect or adverse effects at this time
90 degree
needle is inserted in adults at this angle, when administrating IM injections
15 min
onset of action of IM injections occurs within _____
3 mL
never administer IM injections more than ___ at a time at any site
0.2 mL
add this much air behind the solution for air lock technique IM injections
chemical name
describes the chemical make-up of a drug
contraindication
any condition for which administration of a drug is undesirable or the administration may produce undesirable effects when administered with another drug
drug
any chemical compound, other than food, used in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease
drug hypersensitivity
allergy - abnormal reaction or sensitivity to a drug
generic name
describes the principle ingredients; the formal name of the drug
indication
disease or condition for which a drug is prescribed
maximum dose
largest quantity that can be given without probable harmful effects
pharmacology
the scientific study of the origin, nature, and effects of drugs
physician's desk reference
PDR - a comprehensive book listing of drug products for medical professionals
side effect
action or effect other than desired
therapeutics
treatment of disease
toxicology
scientific study of the nature and effects of toxic substances
trade/brand name
name created by the manufacturer; it indicates the name is registered and protected by law;
usual/therapeutic dose
amount of a drug necessary to produce a desired effect
antidysrhythmics
prevention or correction of irregular heart rhythms
antihypertensives
controls high blood pressure
anticoagulants
inhibits clotting of blood
antacid
used to neutralize acidity in the digestive system
antiflatulant
used for excess gas in the intestinal tract
nonopioid analgesics
relieves pain and inflammation
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories
NSAIDS - counteraction of body tissue inflammation
anti-infectives
inhibits growth of or destroys microoganisms
vaccines and toxoids
artificially induced immunity to a specific disease or toxin
local anesthetic agent
produce numbness in local area
antipsychotic agent
improves or moderates mental symptoms ranging from anxiety to psychosis
antidiabtes - 2 types
insulin and oral hypoglycemics
insulin
decreases blood sugar by transport of glucose into the body tissues and cells
oral hypoglycemics
regulates amount of glucose in the blood
cathartics
acts as a cleanser that produces watery evacuation of intestinal contents through increased peristalsis
stool softerners
promotes bowel movement by adding water and/or bulk to stool
antiemetics
prevention or relief of nausea/vomiting
antidiarrheal
control of diarrhea
meniscus
the curved upper surface of a liquid in a container. The curve may be concave (rounded down) or convex (rounded up).
scored medication
is a tablet with a line in the center, indicating that the medicine is equally divided if it needs to be cut in half
enema
a rectal injection for therapeutic, diagnostic, or nutritive purposes
inhaled medication
a medication which is breathed in or inhaled
antidysrythmics
side-effects:drowsiness, confusion, seizures, bradychardia, example: lidocaine or atropine
antihypertensives
side-effects: hypotension, bradychardia, lightheaded, dizziness, example: atenol, lisinopril
anticoagulants
side-effects: hemorrhage, diarrhea, rash, fever, example: warfarin, heparin
antacid
side-effects: constipations, arrythmias - IV only, example:aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, zantac
antiflatulants
side-effects: bloating,constipation, diarrhea example:simethicone, mylicon
nonopioid analgesics (non-narcotic)
side-effects: headache or mild GI disturbance, example:aspirin, acetaminophen
nonsteriodal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDS)
side-effects: drowsiness or fluid retention, example:Ibuprofen, naproxen
anti-infectives (antibiotics)
side-effects: mild to severe allergic reaction, nausea, diarrhea, example: panicillin, tetracycline, bacitracin
vaccines and toxoids
side-effects: site pain, example: tetanus, hep A
toxoids
diptheria
vaccines
influenza
local anesthestic agents
side-effects: local irritation or possible systemic effects, example: xylocaine
antipsychotic agent
side-effects: confusion, drowsiness, example:zyprexia, clozapine, risperdal
insulin
side-effects: hypoglycemia, anaphylaxis, example: Novolin
oral hypoglycemics
side-effects: hypolycemia, headache, nausea, example:glucophage, glyburide
stool softeners
side-effects: nausea, vomiting, hypotension, example: docusate
cathartics
side-effects: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, example: bisacodyl
antiemetics
side-effects: drowsiness, constipation, example: promethazine, metoclopramide
antidiarrheal
side-effects: constipation, blurred vision, example:loperamide, kalin, pectin
condition of the patient, nature of the drug, rate of absorption
factors affecting the routes of medication
mucous membrane & topical medication
2 types of mucosal medication administration
direct application of liquid or ointment
mucus membrane medicaiton administration such as eye drops, gargling or swabbing
installation of fluid
mucus membrane medication administration such as eye, ear or nose drops
spraying
mucus membrane medication administration such as nose and throat spray
irrigation of cavity
mucus membrane medication administration such as flushing an eye, ear, vagina, bladder or rectum with a medicated fluid
inserting medication
mucus membrane medication administration such as suppositories into a body cavity such as rectum or vagina
topical medication administration
usually given for direct effect on tissue, and may have a local or systemic effect, depending on the medication given
drops
apply medication to center of lower conjunctival sac
ointments
apply the _________ in a thin strip along the lower eyelid from the inner canthus to the outer canthus
first, last
if both drops and ointments are ordered instill drops _______ and ointments ________
adult
when administering otic medication on a _____ pull on the top of the ear up and back
child
when administering otic medication on a _____ pull on the lower half down and back
20 min
instruct patient to hold the rectal suppository in place for this long
5 min
instruct the patient to remain on side or back for this long when administering rectal suppository
1-2 min
instillation of enema should take _____ with a gentle pressure
2-8 min
enema results in this time frame
5-15 min
check on patient ______ after administration of enema
peak expiratory flow
useful for patients with asthma to estimate lung capacity
measured to determine if respiratory medication therapy is achieving results
purpose of peak flow
Nebulizer
used to deliver bronchodilators to the lung relieve bronchospasms
to help patients having difficulty bringing up mucous secretions
purpose of nebulizer
5-15 min
turn off air compressor/oxygen when all meds are administered, approx _______
absorption
the passage of medication molecules into the blood from the site of administration
adverse effect
an effect of a drug which may be unfavorable to the patient's health; an action or effect, other than that which is desired, such as an allergic reaction
ampule
made of glass with restricted neck that is pre-scored to be broken easily; contains sterile solution
diluent
a substance capable of dissolving a drug and holding it in a solution
dilute
to diminish the strength of a mixture by adding another substance
distribution
how the drug is transported by the blood to the site of action. It requires adequate cardiac output and tissue perfusion
excretion
how the drugs and metabolites are eliminated from the body through the kidney, liver, lungs and GI tract
floor stock
a drug storage system in which individual patient medicine doses are prepared from bulk stock by ward personnel
medication administration record (MAR)
a sheet used for documentation listing medications prescribed and times to be given
medication interaction
when a medication may potentiate or diminish the actions of other medications
metabolism
the conversion of the drug to an inactive and harmless form that can be excreted through the lungs, kidneys, and liver, GI tract
parenteral administration
injecting a medication into body tissues
pharmacist
a person licensed to prepare and dispense drugs
provider
is person licensed to prescribe medications such as a physician, physician assistant, or nurse practitioner
reconstitution
restoring a dehydrated substance to its previous liquid form by adding liquid
side effect
an unintended secondary effect of a medication
solute
a medication which can be dissolved in liquid
therapeutic effect
an expected or predictable physiological response to medication
unit dose system
a drug storage system that employs pharmacy control in supplying individual doses of drugs for each patient
vial
a rubber-capped glass or plastic bottle containing one or several doses of a particular injectable medication
6 major uses of medications
symptom relief, preventive, diagnostic, curative, health maintenance, contraceptive
drug interaction
occurs when one drug modifies the action of another drug that has also been given
drug allergy
an adverse side effect that is undesirable and may have serious consequences
drug toxicity
a harmful effect - may result from blood level of drug rising above the therapeutic range
drug tolerance
a patient has an unusually low physical response to a drug, and increased dosages are often needed to achieve desired theraputic effect
drug dependence
exists when a person either relies on or needs a drug: physical and psychological
aerosol
aqueous medication sprayed and absorbed in the mouth and upper airways, not meant for ingestion
caplet
a solid dosage form for oral use; shaped like a capsule for ease of swallowing
capsule
a solid dosage form for oral use; medication in powder, liquid, or oil form and encased by gelaton shell
elixir
a clear liquid containing water and/or alcohol; designed for oral use; usually has sweetener added
enteric-coated tablet
a tablet for oral use coated with materials that do not dissolve in the stomach; coating dissolves in the intestine where absorption takes place
extract
a concentrated medication form made by removing active portion of medication from its other components
liniment
a preparation usually containing alcohol, oil or soapy emollient that is applied to the skin
lotion
a medication in liquid suspension applied externally to protect skin
ointment
a semi-solid, externally applied preparation, usually containing one or more medications
paste
a semi-solid preparation, thicker and stiffer than ointment; absorbed through skin more slowly than ointment
pill
a solid dosage form containing one or more medication, shaped into globules, ovoids, or oblong shapes
solution
a liquid preparation that may be used orally, parenterally, or externally; can be instilled into body organ or cavity
suppository
a solid dosage form mixed with gelatin and shaped in pellet form for insertion into a body cavity; melts when it reaches body temperature
suspension
finely divided drug particles dispersed in liquid medium; when it is left standing, particles settle to bottom of container, must be shaken prior to use
sustained release
medication designed to be released into the system over a longer period of time
syrup
a medication dissolved in concentrated sugar solution; may contain flavoring to make medication taste better
tablet
a powdered dosage form compressed into hard disks or cylinder
tincture
an alcohol or water-alcohol medication solution
trouche
lozenge - a flat, round dosage form containing medication, flavoring, sugar, and mucilage; dissolves in mouth to release medication
oral
PO - medication that are either swallowed of instilled through a tube leading to the stomach
buccal
a solid medication is placed in the mouth against the mucous membranes of the cheek until it is dissolved.
subcutaneous
subQ - injection of sterile medication into subcutaneous tissue
intramuscular
IM - injection of sterile medication into a muscle.
intravenous
IV - injection of sterile medication into a vein
intradermal
ID - injection of sterile medication into the dermis of the skin
sublingual
SL - medication dissolved under the tongue and absorbed through the blood vessels
inhalation
steam or medication in vapor form is inhaled into the lungs
rectal
PR - medication placed in the rectum for absorption through the mucous membranes
topical
medication applied on the surface of the skin
vaginal
medication placed in the vagina for absorption through the mucous membranes
standing order
multiple doses of a medication that may be administered: until it is canceled by provider, until prescribed number of doses have been given
PRN order
medication may be administered when the patient requires it
single order
medication to be administered once at a specified time
stat order
a single dose of medication to be administered immediately
drug name, amount of drug per dose, number of doses, route of administration, frequency or number of times for day, signature of physician
medication must contain :
verbal and written
two ways medication order can be initiated
6 rights of medication
right medication/drug, right dose, right route, right time, right patient, right documentation
schedule 1
schedule _ has the highest abuse potential
schedule IV
schedule _ has the lowest abuse potential
medication
is an approved pharmacologic agent applied to or introduced to the body and used to produce a local or systemic physiologic effect
symptom relief
e.g aspirin for pain or fever
preventive
to avoid disease e.g. vaccines for Hepatitis B
diagnostic
to help the physician determine whether a disease is present e.g. radiopaque dyes
curative
to eliminate the disease i.e. antibiotics
health maintenance
to help keep the body functioning normally e.g. insulin
contraceptive
drugs to prevent pregnancy
chemical composition, clinical action, therapeutic affect on the body
classification of medications by type
drug actions
drugs are administered for the purpose of achieving a desired effect or level
drug response
response to a drug can cause a primary or secondary physiologic effect or both
drug toxicity
the drug may be administered by the wrong route, the body may be unable to metabolize the drug adequately, the body may be unable to excrete the drug adequetely
physical drug dependence
the body physically requires the drug, and withdrawal signs are evident if deprived
psychological drug dependence
emotional reliance on the drug develops
considerations for infants and children
differences in size, age, weight, surface area and immature organs all effect ability to absorb, metabolize and excrete drugs
check for drug interactions
considerations for elderly because they may be taking multiple medications due to chronic illnesses
medication absorption
is how quickly the medication travels into the blood stream from the site of administration
quicker it is absorbed
the closer the route is to major blood vessels
intravenous
the fastest route for medication absorbption
oral
slowest medication absorption
liquid medication
absorbed easier by the body
medications are locked up
portable locked carts or unit dose carts, computerized cabinets
floor stock
medications are kept in bulk, individual doses need to be calculated and prepared
unit dose cart
a mobile cart with a drawer for each patient, drawers are labeled with addressgraph
narcotic locker
contains controlled substances such as morphines and hypnotics
automated medication dispensing system
electronically controlled to dispense a drug, nurses corpmen/technicians imput security code to gain access
written medication orders
providers gives the drug order in the patient's chart
verbal/telephone medication orders
for emergencies, providers gives order to the nurse
medication administration record (MAR)
the medication order is then copied to the __________ and is usually kept in an indexed folder called Kardex
safety administration rules
take a complete drug history, assess the patient for drug allergies, be aware of potential drug interactions, document each drug after giving it, teach the patient about the drug
principles of safe administration
check medication orders before giving drugs, know about the drug being given, check for allergies
principles of safe administration
Avoid distractions/interuptions. When preparing medication, medications are only given by the person preparing them
six rights
medication, dose, route, time, patient, documentation,
3 medication checks
2 during medication preparation; located and prepared, and 1 before adminstration
medication is located and after its preparation
first 2 checks is done during these times
ad lib
freely, as desired
a.c.
before meals
amp
ampule
b.i.d. or B.I.D.
twice a day
c
with
capsule
cap(s)
c/o
complains of
daily
once a day
elix
elixer
g
gram
gtt
drop
h
hour
H.S. or h.s.
at bedtime or hours of sleep
kvo
keep vein open
ID
intradermal
IM
intramuscular
inj
injection
irrig
irrigation
IV
intravenously
kg
kilogram
L
liter
mg
milligram
mL
milliliter
NPO
nothing by mouth
OD
right eye - oculus dexter
OS
left eye - oculus sinister
OU
both eyes - oculus uterque
p
post/after
p.c.
after meals
p.o.
by mouth
pr
per rectum
PRN
when needed or requested
QID
four times a day
q
every
qh
every hour
q(1-24)h
every number of hours - q2h (every 2 hours)
roman numerals - I-V
used to designate number of pills, ounces, capsules
Rx
prescription
Stat
immediately
S.L.
sublingual
subQ
subcutaneous
supp
suppository
tab
tablet
T.I.D.
three times a day