Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (50)
Who was Alexander the Great?
King of Macedon; world conqueror; one of history's most successful military commanders
When did Alexander the Great live?
356 - 323 BC
What is the significance of Alexander the Great?
When did Ptolemy I become king?
What is the significance of Ptolemy I?
Childhood friend of Alex; became king after him; made Alexandria capital; built Pharos, library, museum
Who were the Ptolemies and when did they rule?
Dynasty of kings; 305 - 30 BC
What was the significance of the Ptolemies?
Made Egypt a Hellenistic kingdom
Who was Cleopatra and when did she rule?
Last active pharaoh of Ancient Egypt; 69 - 30 BC; last Ptolemy to rule
Who was Mark Antony and when did he rule?
Roman politician and general; military commander for Caesar; 83 - 30 BC
Significance of Mark Antony?
Played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy to the autocratic Roman Empire
Who was Hypatia? When did she live?
Female Greek mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher; 370-415 AD
Who was Amr b. Al-As? When did he live?
Arab military commander; 585 - 664 AD
Significance of Amr b. al-As?
Lead Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640; captured Alexandria
Who were the Fatimids and when did they rule?
Shia Islamic caliphate; 969 - 1171 AD = Fatimid Egypt
Significance of the Fatimids?
Made Egypt the center of the caliphate
Who were the Mamluks and when did they rule Egypt?
Slave dynasty; 1250-1517 AD
Significance of Mamluks?
Ruled Egypt and Syria; used Alexandria as a main port; built Fort Qaitbey in place of Pharos
Who was Serapis and who invented him?
Graeco-Egyptian God; Ptolemy I
Significance of Serapis?
Ptolemy used Serapis as a means of unifying the Greeks and Egyptians; syncretism
What was Rhakotis?
Egyptian city predating the foundation of Alexandria; "building site"
What was Lake Mareotis?
Lake in northern Egypt; behind Alexandria (with Med sea in front)
Significance of Lake Mareotis?
Makes Alexandria sort of an island (lake behind, sea in front) --> connectivity and isolation
What was the Nile Delta?
Delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean
Significance of Nile Delta?
Transportation (connectivity; highway) and agriculture (economy; floods and nutrients)
What was the Aboukir Bay?
Spacious bay on the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt, near Alexandria and Nile
What was the Serapaeum and who built it?
Temple dedicated to syncretic god Serapis; Ptolemy III built it in 200s BCE
Significance of Serapaeum?
What was the Pharos? Who built it? When?
Lighthouse of Alexandria built by Ptolemy I in 297 BCE and inaugurated by Ptolemy II in 283 BCE
Significance of Pharos?
Symbol of Alexandria's economic power; guided ships to Alexandria's harbor
What was the Qaitbey fort? Who built it? When?
Defensive fortress built by Mamluks (Sultan al-Din) in 1477 AD
Where was the Qaitbey fort?
Mediterranean sea coast, where Pharos was (northern tip of Pharos island)
Significance of Qaitbey Fort?
On the spot of pharos; signifies new control/dynasty; provided defense to Alexandria
Cisterns of Alexandria
Cistern system filled by Nile that provided drinking water, as Alexandria had low rainfall; built more than 1000 years ago
Who built the library of Alexandria? When?
Ptolemy I; 300 BCE
Significance of Library of Alexandria?
Most important center of learning in antiquity; multicultural (Greeks, Egyptians, Jews)
What is the museum of Alexandria? Who built it? When?
Institution that was home of music or poetry, a philosophical school and library; storehouse of texts; contained library of Alexandria; Ptolemy I in 300 BCE
What is the Nekropolis of Alexandria? When was it established?
"City of the dead" (Strabo); site containing numerous tombs of the dead; 2nd century BCE
Where is the Nekropolis?
Beyond the walls of Alexandria to the west
Significance of Nekropolis?
Displayed syncretism; mixture of traditions: Roman, Greek, and Egyptian influence in architecture/burial styles; displayed Hellenized Egyptians
What is the Qum ash-Shaqafa? When were they constructed?
Catacombs; "heaps of shards"; family crypt; largest known Roman burial site in Egypt; 2nd century AD
Significance of Qum ash-Shaqafa?
Graeco-Roman architecture; syncretism; fusion of Pharaonic and Greek styles
What was the soma? Where is it? When?
Tomb of Alexander (soma = body); location not known for sure but probably near palaces in Alexandria; late 4th/early 3rd century BC
Significance of Tomb of Alexander?
Having Alexander's body int eh city sort of gave "Alexander's blessing" to whomever was ruling
What were Cleopatra's needles?
Ancient Egyptian obelisks that were re-erected in London, Paris, and NYC
When do the needles date back to?
London and NYC = Thutmose III; Paris = Ramesses II
Significance of needles?
Moved to Alexandria and set up in the Caesareum (temple built in honor of Antony or Caesar)
What is syncretism?
The mixing of cultures/traditions
How is syncretism displayed in the word sarcophagus?
Sarco + phagus = "eater of flesh" (Greek word); mummification is the opposite of this as it preserves flesh. Thus, displays syncretism (Egyptian + Greek; Hellenized Egyptians)
What does hypogaea mean?
"Under the earth"; underground mazes/chambers in necropolis; upper class
Of Kom ash-Shoqata; "heap of shards"; Western metropolis
This set is often in folders with...
History 101: Western Civilization
Alexander the great and his influence
Chapter 5: The Roman Republic
You might also like...
History Alive Chapter 8 - Ancient Egypti…
Caput Mundi Midterm
seven ancient wonders of the world
T0A - Foundations of Architecture: Build…
Other sets by this creator
BEC - Financial Planning & Analysis
BEC - Risk Management
BEC - Performance Measures
BEC - COSO
Other Quizlet sets
Ch. 8 Nucleic Acid-Based Analytic Methods for Micr…
Pompeii & Herculaneum
Virology Final II