31 terms

LS CH. 4

The cell in action (diffucsion and cell division)
STUDY
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Why are oranisms like a factory?
They must be able to obtain enerygy and raw materials and get rid of wastes.
diffusion
the movement of particles from areas of high concentration (crowded) to areas of low concentration(less crowded)
Osmosis
the diffusion of water through a semipermeable (cell) membrane.
semipermeable
only certain substances can pass through.
Why is osmosis important?
it is important to cell function because it keeps particles and molecules in balance.
Passive transport
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell.
active transport
the movement of substances across the cell membrane that requires the cell to use energy.
endocytosis
the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in vesicle to bring the particle into the cell.
exocytosis
the process in which a cell releases a particle by enclosing the particle in a vesicle that then moves to cell surace and fuses with the cell membrane.
What part of the cell do materials pass through to get into and out the cell?
cell membrane
photosynthesis
the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make food.
pigment
molecules that absorb light energy.
cellular respiration
the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy.
fermentation
the breakdown of food without the use of oxygen. The two kinds are :1. the kind that occures in muscles cells, and in some fungi and bacteria. 2. occures in some types of bacteria and in yeast.
In what organelle does photosynthesis occur?
chloroplast
In what organelle does respiration occur?
mitochondrion
cell cycle
the life cycle of a cell
chromosomes
in a eurkaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes that have the same sequence of gemes and the same stucture
chromatids
the two copies of each chromosome after it is duplicated.
centromere
the region at which chromatids are held together.
mitosis
in eukayotic cells, a process of cell division that forms twho new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes.
What is cell division?
2 cell stage, 4 cell stage, 8 stage.
How do prokaryotic cells make more cells?
by splitting apart.
What are the four phases of mitosis?
...prophase,metaphases, anaphase, telophase
1.prophase
nuclear membrane dissolves. Cromozones condence into rodlike structers.
2.metaphases
The chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell.
3.anaphase
The chromatids seperate and move to opposite sides of the cell.
4.telophase
A nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes.
What is interphase?
the cell grows and copies its organelles and chromosomes.
cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplasm of a cell.