clinical child psych final!!

what is eating pathology
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examples of purging and non-purging behaviorspurging behaviors- laxatives , vomiting nobpurging behaviors- excessive exerciseWhat are medical consequences of anorexia?DEATH, low blood pressure/heart rate and possible heart failure, organ failure, amenorrhea, dehydration, osteoporosisWhat are medical consequences of bulimia?fatigue, headaches, loss of dental enamel, amenorrhea, electrolyte imbalance, gastric ulcers and rupturesWhat is the role of control in eating disorders?control of body image ; people compensate for not having control in other aspects of their life by over controlling their eating habitsWhat is the difference between persons with anorexia and persons with bulimia?Persons with anorexia are 15% or more below normal weight and engage in binge eating only occasionally; those with bulimia are within 10% of normal weight and binge frequently then purge to control their weightbinge eating disorder1) recurrent binge eating episodes involving objectively large amounts of food and lack of control episodes of binge eating but without compensatory behaviors (no purging or nonpurging behaviors)what is the gender variation of eating disordersEating disorders more common in females than males. However, risk for males is increasing, with an emphasis on being muscular.what sports are eating disorders most common withaesthetic sports like gymnastics, wrestling where weight categories determine competition & likelihood of success), occupations like modeling and dancing.What is the association between sexual orientation and eating disorders?-Gay men are at greater risk for behavioral symptoms of eating disorders compared to heterosexual men -Gay men are more susceptible to media images promoting thinness, and are more likely to experience poor body image and body dissatisfactionwhich disorder has the highest mortality rate of any mental health disorderanorexia nervosarisk factors for eating disordersfamily factors, sociocultural factors, psychological factors. There is limited influence of biological/genetic factors.what is the comorbidity of eating disorders90% of individuals with eating disorders also struggle with another disorder, usually depression , anxiety or OCDWhat is the evidence for the role of the microbiome in eating disorders?people with anorexia have microbiome changes in their guts a theory- the microbiome may be a trigger for ED measure the microbiome for treatment plans for ED!What are the treatment outcomes for anorexia and bulimia?anorexia nervosa treatment- BFST behavioral family systems therapy, takes a long time to treat and relapse rate is high bulimia treatment- CBT / interpersonal therapyWhen people with anorexia are hospitalized, what is the reason for hospitalization, and what is the primary intervention given?hospitalization (usually brief) is necessary if the individual has serious complications due to comorbid diagnoses or are at high risk physically or psychiatric ; re-feedingWhy is Behavioral Family Systems Therapy more effective for anorexia than other treatments?Emphasizes parental control overeating, cognitive restructuring, and problem-solving communication trainingIs obesity a psychological disorder?noWhat is the role of the family in obesity?- dietary and lifestyle preferences - parents determine food availability, and they model an approach to exercise and diet - family disorganization: poor communication, lack of perceived family support, and sexual and physical abuseHow might neighborhoods be associated with obesity?food and grocery options (geological availability) community infrastructure, safety measuresWhat is the difference between biological sex and gender?biological sex is the sex one is assigned at birth but gender is defined by how the individual feels and who they feel they areWhat are respectful pronouns that are gender neutral?they / themDefine Gender Dysphoria and the symptoms of this disorder in children vs adolescents and adultsgender dysphoria - stress that strems from gender not matching biological sex symptoms in children - 1. A strong desire to be of the other gender or an insistence that one is the other gender 2. A strong preference for wearing clothes typical of the opposite gender 3. A strong preference for cross-gender roles in make-believe play or fantasy play symptoms in adolescence and adults- 1. A marked incongruence between one's experienced/expressed gender and primary and/or secondary sex characteristics 2. A strong desire to be rid of one's primary and/or secondary sex characteristicsDescribe 3 ways in which Gender Dysphoria may impact individualshigh rate of bullying and physical/ sexual assault risk of suicide emotional and social impactsWhy was the name changed from Gender Identity Disorder to Gender Dysphoria in the DSM-5?stigmaKnow the prevalence rate of Gender Dysphoria, including differences rates in biological girls vs biological boysprevalence is higher in biological males but overall very lowKnow the most common comorbid disorders and their prevalence rateMDD, GAD, PTSD, substance abuseDiscuss the risk for suicide among those with Gender Dysphoria Disorderprevalence of suicide attempts is 41% •Transmen: 46% •Transwomen: 42%Discuss the effects of having supportive vs unsupportive familiessupportive family = much less suicide risk and a better outcomeWhat are the possible causes of Gender Dysphoria Disorder?Not fully understood, both psychosocial and biological factors during development evidence for- genetic factors & hormonal exposure during prenatal developmentDiscuss sex reassignment surgery and what this involvesQualifications: •Must live in the desired gender for 1 to 2 years •Must be stable psychologically, financially, socially satisfaction rate: 90%!!!Discuss the steps in transitioningA long process that includes some or all of the following cultural, legal and medical adjustments: •telling one's family, friends, and/or co-workers •changing one's name and/or sex on legal documents •hormone therapy •and possibly (though not always) some form of surgical alterationthe roots of pediatric psychologyclinical child psychology and health psychologyWhat are the defining features of a pediatric psychologist•Promotion of healthy behaviors •Prevention of problematic health effects (e.g., unhealthy lifestyles, behavioral patterns....overeating) ●Goal: Target behaviors early in life or early in the onset of a chronic medical conditiondifferent settings where a pediatric psychologist might workinpatient medical center, medical outpatient clinic , specialty facilities, campsclinical activities of a pediatric psychologist.Psychosocial services for problems related to pediatric health conditions Psychological interventions for mental health problems/issues related to a medical conditionWhy do they have camps for children with chronic illness? Be able to list 3 reasons.proper nutrition, access to meds, kinds with chronic illnesses are often isolated so camps can help them to socialize with a general understanding and acceptance of their illnessdefinition of a chronic illness.An illness that lasts for more than 3 months in a given year or requires a continuous hospitalization for more than 1 monthlist 2 types of chronic illnesses common in childrencancer , diabetes, asthma , sickle cell anemiadefine secondary gain and be able to give an examplewhen your illness provides some type of benefit; social supportwhat is Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 diabetes) particularly difficult for adolescents?the body can't metabolize carbohydrates because of inadequate pancreatic release of insulin; hard for adolescence- it's harder to heal physical injuries, have to track what they eat and when to manage blood sugar so social events can be harder, importance of peer acceptance grows during adolescenceWhat types of psychological issues are common for children with chronic illness?- more likely to have emotional and behavioral adjustment problems - social adjustment problems - school adjustment problemseffects of chronic illness on family membersparents- increased financial and emotional stressors, illness anxiety disorder siblings- behavioral issues, feeling neglected by parentswhat is key to children's adaptation to chronic illness.parental adaptationWhat are two primary areas children with chronic illness have difficulty in?social and school adjustmentdescribe types of interventions for children and families dealing with chronic illnessinterventions for family and for child: for family- •Promote effective child-rearing practices for parents •Reduce and manage stress for children and families; empower families •Help families get necessary information to make informed decisions for children: •Reduce and manage stress •Enhance social problem-solving skills •Training in coping skills •Providing information and ways to handle stressful medical procedures, chronic and recurrent painWhy did the DSM-5 have so many changes in creating the category of Somatic Symptoms and Related Disorders?•Simplify for non-psychiatric physicians •Reduce stigma •Remove implication that symptoms were not "real" •More of a focus on "positive" symptomsIf there is no clear medical explanation for symptoms does it mean there is a psychiatric diagnosis?nodifference between Somatic Symptom Disorder and Illness Anxiety Disorder.somatic symptom disorder: physical symptoms with no obvious physical or medical cause illness anxiety disorder: preoccupation with having or acquiring medical disorder, physical symptoms not presentWhat disorder replaced hypochondriasis?illness anxiety disorderAre people with Somatic Symptom Disorder faking it?noWhat are common symptoms associated with Conversion Disorder?- Neurological symptoms affecting voluntary motor/sensory areas o Weakness or paralysis o Abnormal movement, such as tremors or difficulty walking o Loss of balance o Difficulty swallowing or "a lump in the throat" o Seizures or convulsions o Episode of unresponsiveness o Numbness or loss of the touch sensation o Speech problems, such as inability to speak or slurred speech o Vision problems, such as double vision or blindness o Hearing problems or deafnessEpisodes of conversion disorder are nearly always triggered bya stressful event, an emotional conflict or another mental health disorder, such as depression or PTSD.Why is it called "Conversion" Disorder?it's related to a specific stressful event in which the psychological stress is converted into physical symptomsFactitious Disorder (imposed on self)- may lie about or mimic symptoms, hurt themselves to bring on symptoms, or alter diagnostic tests (such as contaminating a urine sample). - Those with Factitious Disorders have an inner need to be seen as ill or injured, but not to achieve a concrete benefit, such as a financial gain (such as to collect insurance money), food or shelter, or to avoid criminal prosecution or other responsibilities. - Individuals with Factitious Disorder are even willing to undergo painful or risky tests and operations in order to obtain the sympathy and special attention given to people who are truly ill.Factitious Disorder (imposed on another)- Individuals with this disorder produce or fabricate symptoms of illness in another under their care: children, elderly adults, disabled persons, or pets. - Falsify illness through induction (poisoning, suffocating, injuring), lies/exaggeration of symptoms, feigning test results/tampering with test results, coaching children on how to describe symptoms - Considered medical abuseWhat makes Factitious Disorder difficult to prove and diagnose?- people are good at hiding Factitious disorder - doctors tend to believe what the patient tells them - the person has to get caught in the actdefinition of resilienceGood outcomes in spite of serious threats to adaptation or developmentlist at least 3 out of the 10 ways to build resilience•Make connections •Avoid seeing as insurmountable •Accept change •Move toward goals •Take decisive action •Opportunities for self-discovery •Positive self-view •Perspective •Hopeful outlook •Self-careWhy is resilience more than just "grit"?grit is just managing until it's done whereas resilience is finding and building meaning after a traumatic eventWhat are some reasons why it might be beneficial to find meaning in or create meaning from a traumatic event?Associated with self-confidence, coping skills, ability to avoid risk situations, ability to recover from misfortune